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estimated at 0,181,024 dollars, besides the doubtful articles, valued at 1,033,180, and consisting of maplesugar, saltpetre, &c. At Maysville there is a glass factory; at Paris, several cording machines; at Danville, several mills, factories, and rope-walks; at Frankfort, hemp manufactories, powder-mills, a grist and saw-mill; at Cynthiana, ten grist and sawmills; at Newport, an arsenal; at Louisville, several manufactories; at Shipping Port, a rope-walk, 1250 feet in length; at Vaugeville, a salt manufactory, at which a bushel of salt is obtained from 300 gallons of water. Several large brigs have been built at Frankfort, and sent to New Orleans, and 500 hogsheads of tobacco have been shipped for the latter place in one year from the town of Henderson, on the Ohio river. In the month of September 1817, an association was formed at Lexington, for the encouragement of domestic manufactures.

Commerce.—The foreign commerce of this state is yet inconsiderable, owing to its great distance from the sea, and the consumption of its staple productions by new settlers. The exports consist chiefly of wheat, rye, barley, hemp, tobacco, live cattle, whisky, and peach brandy. The introduction of steam-boats has removed one of the great objections to this country as a place of residence. rt>Other evils which existed about the year 1793, the uncertainty of land titles, the labours and dangers of the militia service, from Indian hostility, * have also ceased; and the mildness

* Some information respecting America, collected by Thomas Cooper, late of Manchester. London, 1 vol. in 8vo, 1794, p. 24

of the climate, with the great fertility of the soil, now overbalance all objections. Steam-boats, of 360 tons, ascend from New Orleans to Louisville, a distance of 2500 miles, in 25 days, and descend in eight or nine, with passengers, and freight, amounting to about 200 tons. Louisville, situated in latitude J8° 8' north, is now a port of entry.

Canals.—A company have been incorporated, for the purpose of running a canal along the rapids of Louisville, with a capital of 500,000 dollars. The descent in nine miles is twenty-two feet. The canal is to be two miles in length, sixteen in depth, twenty in width below, sixty at the surface, and on the Kentucky side of the river. The soil is a stiff clay, reposing on a bed of limestone rock, which does not rise more than three feet and a half above the level of the proposed canal; which, according to the estimate of the engineer, Mr Baldwin, will cost 240,000 dollars.

Banks.—The only one is the bank of Kentucky, established at Frankfort, with a capital of 2,077,750 dollars; with branches at Washington, Paris, Lexington, Dansville, Russelville, Beardstown, and Louisville. In 1816 the debts due to this bank were 4,087,740 dollars; deposits in cash, 1,364,320; notes in circulation, 1,877,557; cash in hand, 1,233,148. The notes of this bank are in high credit. Those of Ohio and the neighbouring states have also a free and extensive circulation.

Bridges.—A chain bridge crosses the Kentucky river at Frankfort.

Houses.-—In the new settlements the houses are constructed of hewn logs, the interstices filled with mud; and the chimney of stone, projecting from the hall. In all the towns the houses are of stone, brick, or wood, and generally have a neat appearance. The state-house, at Frankfort, is of marble, eighty-six feet in front, and fifty-four deep.

Roads.—The roads, owing to the nature of the soil, and moisture of the climate, are very expensive to make and keep in repair, and consequently are yet in a bad condition.

Inventions claimed by Citizens of this State.

Ohio Mills The machinery is fastened to a flat-bottomed boat, and is moved by means of a wheel on the side, which is placed in the current of the river, where the boat is moored until the grain is ground, after which it is rowed to the bank, or to another place to receive a fresh supply. The miller lives with his family on board the boat, in a sort of cabin, which shelters them from the weather.

Works relating to this Territory.

1. A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America, by Finlay, a captain in the American army during the late war, and a commissioner for laying out land in the back settlements. New York, 1793, 2 vols, in 12mo.

2. Historie de Kentucke, nouvelle colonie a l'ouest de la Vir' ginie, Traduit de l'Anglais par Purrand. Paris, 1785.

3. Voyage a l'ouest des Monts Alleghanis, par A. E. Michaux. Paris, 1808.

4. Nicholas' (George) Letter to his Friend in Virginia, justifying the conduct of the citizens of Kentucky, as to some of the late measures of the general government, &c. Jenington, 1789. pp. 39.

CHAPTER XXII.

TENNESSEE. *

Situation And Boundaries.—The state of Tennessee is situated between 35° and 36° 30' of north latitude, and 4° 26' and 13° 9' west longitude from Washington. It is bounded on the north by the states of Kentucky and Virginia; south by the states of Mississippi and Georgia, and the Alibama territory; east by North Carolina, and west by the river Mississippi. The boundary line on the south side is the parallel of 35, on the north side the parallel of 36. 30, and on the east the Alleghany mountains, which separate the state from North Carolina. Its length from east to west is 445 miles, and its breadth from north to south 104. Area 40,000 square miles, or 25,600,000 acres.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil.— The Cumberland mountains, a ridge of the Great Alleghany chain, run across this state near its eastern ex- * This is the Indian name for spoon, which was given to the river Tennessee from a fancied resemblance of shape. The terms East and West Tennessee were adopted in an act of Congress, for the establishment of two federal courts on each side of the Cumberland mountains.

tremity, in a direction from north-east to south-west; their base occupying a breadth of about fifty miles. In many parts they are craggy and inaccessible; but they inclose several fine vallies of considerable extent, which afford excellent pasture. The middle parts of the state are hilly but very productive. The country extending from the western side of the mountains to the Mississippi is generally broken, without marshes, and thickly wooded in many parts. The soil resembles that of Kentucky, and its fertility is indicated by a thick growth of the cane. The hills, and even the small mountains, of this state are fertile to the very summit, and produce a large growth of tulip, beech, and sugar maple trees; but, in many places, the ascent is too steep to admit of agricultural operations. There is a tract of several millions of acres of very rich land extending above and below the mussel shoals of the Tennessee river, which is the property of the United States. In the Cumberland mountains there are caverns of great extent, with fine streams running through them several hundred feet. In the freestone rocks there are also immense excavations called coves, from which issue fine springs of water.

Temperature.—Vegetation is from six to seven weeks earlier here than in the eastern states, and continues later nearly by the same space of time. The winter is so mild that the rivers are seldom frozen. The snow is never more than ten inches in depth, and seldom continues more than ten or twelve days. The climate of the mountainous region, called East Tennessee, is delightful. That of the middle part is some

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