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regimental staff is appointed by the commanding offi. cers of the respective regiments ; the brigade-major by the brigadier-general; the non-commissioned officers of companies by the captains. The military is in strict subordination to the civil power, and no standing army can be kept up in time of peace without the consent of the legislature. In 1815, the militia, including officers, amounted to 41,732 infantry, 102 artillery, 415 dragoons, 1511 riflemen.
Slavery.-Slaves are the legal property of the owner, without whose consent, or a full equivalent in money, the general assembly, though empowered to prevent their future importation as merchandise, cannot grant the emancipation of those already introduced. It has power to pass laws to oblige their owners to treat them humanely, and to provide them with wholesome food and suitable clothing. In the prosecution of a slave for felony, no inquest by a grand jury is necessary, but he is entitled to an impartial trial by a petty jury. All citizens have the right of emigrating from the state. .
Educațion.--The Transylvanian University at Lex. ington, founded by the legislature of Virginia, and incorporated by that of Kentucky, in 1798, is endowed with landed funds, yielding an annual revenue of 2700 dollars. Some of these lands, to the amount of 75,000 dollars, have been lately sold, and the proceeds vested in bank stock, which produces annually from ten to twelve and a half per cent. The establishment is under the direction of twenty-five trustees. The number of students is between fifty and sixty. The professorships are five in number-of natural philosophy, moral phis losophy, mathematics, classical literature, and modern languages. The library contains about 15,000 volumes. Academies for the encouragement of literature have been instituted at Louisville, Beardstown, Frankfort, Cynthiana, Newport. For that of Cyn. thiana the legislature has grounded 1000 acres of land, and the same extent for that of Newport. Common schools are established in every county. A few years since, the legislature gave 6000 acres of land, situated in Green river county, for the support of common schools. So general is education throughout this state, that it is rare to find a white person who cannot read and write. A Museum of natural history and antiquities has lately been established.
Newspapers.—At Lexington, three weekly newspapers are published ; the Repertor, Kentucky Gazette, and the Monitor. The last is the only federal paper in the state. At Dansville, a paper called The Light-House ; at Frankfort, The Palladium, Argus, and The Pulse.
Religion.—The laws make no provision for the support of religion. The principal sects are the Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists. The latter are the most numerous. According to the report of the general convention, held at Philadelphia in May 1817, the number of their churches was 421 ; of members, 22,434. The number of Presbyterian clergymen is about fifty; forty of whom belong to the general assembly of the Presbyterian church, and ten to the Associate Reformed Synod of Kentucky. At Beards,
town there is a Catholic bishop; but of this, and the Episcopalian profession, the number is very small.
Agriculture. The great object of all who establish themselves in this state is agriculture, for in this employment the poorest labourer soon finds ease and independence. In Lexington and the neighbouring counties, the average produce of wheat and rye is about thirty bushels an acre. In high rich grounds that of Indian corn is from fifty to sixty, and, in a very abundant season, even seventy-five bushels. This latter grain, which is much cultivated, grows to the height of ten or twelve feet. The produce of other grain is proportionally great. The first quality of land is too rich for wheat, until it has been reduced by other crops during four or five years. Rye and oats arrive at greater perfection than in the eastern states. The former is employed for the distillation of whisky, the latter for the use of horses. In 1816, the produce of the barrens between Green and Cumberland rivers was from forty to fifty bushels per acre of Indian corn, fifteen of rye, thirteen of oats. C Hemp and flax are now cultivated to a considerable extent ; Othe former sells at the rate of eighty dollars per ton, the latter at fifteen dollars per cwt. ; * the ordinary produce is from 700 to 1000 pounds weight per acre. Cotton may be cultivated as far north as Green river, in latitude 37° 31'; but the climate is not sufficiently warm for this plant, nor for the sweet potatoe. The culture of the vine has been of late extended by a com
* Nile's Weekly Register, Vol. VII. p. 339.
pany associated for this purpose, (in 1803,) with a ca. pital of 10,000 dollars, under the direction of a native of Switzerland. The harvest generally takes place in the first days of July. The bear and the grey squirrel* are very destructive to the crops, especially of maize; and on this account the farmers wage perpetual war against them. A large tract of the barrens, or natural meadows, have been lately purchased for the rearing of sheep by a company at Lexington, who commenced in 1815 with a stock of 10,000. In the month of January of that year, the wool of the fullblooded Merinos was from one and a half to two dol. lars a pound; of the mixed breed from three-quarters to one and a quarter ; of the common sheep, half a dollar. O Hogs are so numerous that some farmers have flocks of several hundreds. They wander in the woods, except when attracted to the farm-house by the Indian corn. The principal fruits are apples and peaches. From the former cider is made ; from the latter peach brandy, of which there is a great consumption. 1)
Price of Horses and Cattle.-In 1815, the price of a good working horse was fifty dollars ; that of a good saddle horse a hundred dollars ; a yoke of cattle cost about fifty dollars ; a good cow from ten to twelve ; a sheep from one and a quarter to one and a half dol. lar. Every wealthy farmer has from ten to thirty good horses. Cattle are raised in great numbers for the consumption of the new settlements and the mar
* Sciurus Carolinianus.
kets of the Atlantic ports. Oxen are not much used for agricultural purposes.
Price of Lands.-In 1817, prime farms of first and second rate land, sufficiently cleared, and having a suitable house and offices, could be purchased for forty or fifty dollars an acre, within five miles of Lexington. * In 1816, improved land near the Tennessee boundary line brought from ten to twenty dollars an acre, according to the quality. t Several rich tracts, owned by Virginian non-residents, are valued at thirty dollars the acre.
Provisions are cheap and in great abundance. The price of all manual labour is high. Journeymen mechanics have from one to one and a half dollar per day, while their boarding costs them but two dollars a week. Boatmen of the Ohio gain twenty-five dollars per month. The author of the Western Gazetteer states, that a tailor will charge from five to ten dollars for making a coat, (p. 95.) The rent of a house, containing five good rooms, is from 100 to 200 dollars a year; a house for mechanics from thirty to fifty dollars. The price of a stout healthy negro, from fourteen to thirty years, is from 350 to 400 dollars.
Products of Mineral Substances in 1810. 53 Powder mills, 115,706 lbs. powder, 38,561 dollars. 36 Salt works, 324,870 bushels salt, 324,870 Saltpetre, 201,937 lbs.
33,648 3 Forges,
* Palmer's Travels, p. 109.
t Western Gazetteer, p. 96.