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length, and the current being moderate, affords an easy navigation for sloops to Nashville, and 300 miles higher for boats of fifteen tons. Licking river rises near the source of Kentucky river, and takes a northwestern course of 180 miles to the Ohio, into which it empties itself opposite to Cincinnati. It has an outlet of 150 yards in width, from which it affords a navigation, during high water, to the distance of 100 miles for boats carrying 200 barrels of four. Both these rivers interramify with the Kentucky. Salt ri. ver, which rises from four different sources, runs in a westerly course for 280 miles to its junction with the Ohio, into which it empties itself about fifty miles above the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable for boats 150 miles. Trade water river rises in the bend of Cumberland river, and, taking a north-west course of eighty miles, joins the Ohio 200 miles below the mouth of Green river. It is seventy yards wide at its outlet. Bed river rises in Cumberland county, and runs a south-western direction into Cumberland river. It is fifty miles long, and sixty yards wide at its outlet. Kaskinampus river rises near the Tennessee river, and takes a western course to the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Wabash. It is navigable for boats 150 miles. The Tennessee river, which intersects the state in its western parts, joins the Ohio ten miles below the Cumberland river, after a course of about seventy-five miles in Kentucky.

The banks of those rivers, in different parts, are elevated from 100 to 300 feet above the bed; and, after sudden rain, their waters, like those of the



Ohio, their common receptacle, rise from thirty to forty feet. This is particularly the case with Kentucky and Dick rivers, whose deep calcareous sides, in the summer months when the waters are lowest, give them the appearance of canals. The former, on the 28th March 1817, rose to the height of eighty feet, and carrying down warehouses, occasioned a great loss of property. The waters of the smaller streams sometimes escape by fissures in the rock, and leave their beds dry in summer. In forming wells, it is necessary to pierce this calcareous stratum, below which, fine potable water is every where found.

Extent of Navigable Waters. The Ohio, navigable on the northern frontier, 500 miles. Mississippi, Tennessee, •

100 Cumberland and its branches,

700 Trade water,

60 Green river and Forks, Salt river,

150 Kentucky,

230 Licking,

100 Big Sandy, Total,

2325 Minerals.-Iron ore is found in several parts of this state ; but the iron which it affords is of an inferior quality. Native mercury has been discovered in small globules, in a mass which appears to contain some native amalgam, (Hayden.) Lead ore exists in the mountains about twelve miles south of Monticello. Marble is found on the banks of the Kentucky river, in Franklin county, of a fine grain and greyish variegated colour. Limestone, every where, at unequal depth, though generally


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undulating with the surface. Freestone, in Franklin county and other parts. Chalk, in the banks of the Kentucky river. Nitre is found in several subterranean places, especially in the Big Bone Cavern, from which a great quantity has been taken for the manu. facture of gunpowder. The caverns which contain the greatest quantity of this substance are situated in the counties of Barren, Rock Castle, Montgomery, Knox, Estle, Warren, Cumberland, and Wayne. One in Wayne has produced from 50,000 to 70,000 pounds ayear. Dr Brown of Kentucky has made the following estimate of the quantity of nitre contained in different caves, situated within a few miles distance from each other. In the Great Cave, 1,000,000 pounds; Scot's Cave, two miles distant from the former, 200,000 pounds; Davis' Cave, six miles distant, 50,000 pounds; two others, within a mile, 20,000 pounds; one on Rough Creek, a branch of Green river, 10,000 pounds. There are salt springs at Saltsburg, and at the blue springs of the Licking river, near Louisville. But some of these springs are so weak that it requires 800 gallons of water to yield one bushel of salt; whereas those of the Kanhaway give the same quantity from one-eighth of the liquid. This renders the former unprofitable. On Drennaus' Creek, twentyfive miles from the Ohio, there is a saline which is so abundant, that it is supposed the whole state might be supplied from it. +

* Vol. VI. No. 39 of the Transactions of the Philosophical So. ciety of Philadelphia.

+ Western Gazetteer, p. 103.



Mineral Waters.- Near the sources of Licking river are the Olympian springs, three in number, much frequented by valetudinarians. They have not been analyzed; one is said to be impregnated with iron; another with sulphur; and a third with salt of sulphur and carbonic acid. * Near Harrodsburg, in Mercer county, there is a spring strongly impregnated with Epsom salts. On Drennaus' Creek, there is another medicinal spring, much frequented in the summer season. In the neighbourhood of Boonsborough, there is a spring from which emanates a sulphurous vapour. Near Green river, there are three springs, which empty themselves into a co.nmon reservoir, and there deposit a bituminous substance, which is used as a substitute for lamp-oil.

Forest Trees. The most common forest trees are, white, black, and blue ash ; beech, cherry-tree, wild ditto, red cedar, chestnut, coffee-tree, elm, slippery ditto, gum-tree, sweet ditto, hackberry, honey-locust, juniper-tree, black mulberry; oak, black, red, post, hickery, black jack, and overcup white ; papaw, persimon, poplar, yellow ditto, sassafras, sugar maple-tree, tulip-tree ; white and black walnut.

The grape vine grows throughout the state. The best soil produces locust, cherry, walnut, buck-eye, sugar tree, elm, beech, ash, satin-wood, and papaw. The middle rate lands, oaks, hickery, dogwood, sugar trees, and beech; on what is called indifferent land grow chiefly black and red oak, hickery, gum tree, and the black jack oak. The pine is confined to the broken

* Morse.

and hilly country. * The oak and locust on the flat lands are often found to measure five feet in diameter. Poplars in clayey moist soils attain the height of 120 or 150 feet, with a diameter from three to six feet. The cane, ( Arundinaria macrosperma,) which grows to the height of from two to twelve feet, has been destroyed by the horses and cattle, and in its place has sprung up a very nutritious grass called “ Nimble Will.

The natural grasses are the buffalo, a grass of a coarse texture, which, on a middling soil, grows from nine to eighteen inches high. The spear, blue and crab grasses, which spring up after the land has been cultivated, afford excellent pasture and hay, as also the wild rye and clover. The former generally grows to the height of two feet and upwards; and, in the head and beard, resembles the real rye. The clover is more coarse and luxuriant than that of Europe. The fields are covered with a herbage not common to other countries, known by the name of Shawanese, wild tilture, and pepper grass. The natural meadows are covered with a variety of gramineous plants; gull of the heath, white plantain, and the purple-flowered rudbeechia. Of filamentous or fibrous plants, the most useful are wild hemp, wild flax, wild hop, besides a variety of medicinal plants. Animals.---The bison or buffalo, formerly very numerous, has disappeared, with two species of elk, the morse elk with palmated and another with round horns. Deer are still numerous in the Barrens and south

* Finlay's Description of the Western Territory, p. 201. Vol. I. New York edition, 1793.

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