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best are those from the Cape of Good Hope and the island of Madeira. Those of the country give wine of a tolerable good quality. Hutchins remarked, "that grapes, with a thin black skin, grow in the greatest abundance, of which the inhabitants in the interior make a sufficient quantity of well-tasted red wine for their own consumption." " That large and good hops are found in many places, and the lands are particularly adapted to the cultivation of rice. All Eu* ^ropean fruits, apples, peaches, pears, cherries, currants, gooseberries, melons, &c. thrive well. Cotton and the sweet potatoe are cultivated in the southern parts. The country is admirably fitted for rearing cattle and swine, having great abundance of acorns and roots on which they feed. The animals which are most injurious to agriculture in this prolific country are squirrels, moles, and mice. The mole is particularly so in meadows and corn fields, where the grain begins to shoot."
Finances.—According to the treasurer's report, the receipts into the treasury for the year 1817 amounted to 28,234 dollars 46 cents; the disbursements to 20,605 dollars 33 cents; balance 7629 dollars 13 cents.
Price of Land.—In 1792 the French inhabitants of Vincennes gave their lands in exchange for goods, at the rate of thirty cents an acre. They were sold in 1796 at two dollars. The tract called " Harrison's Purchase," situated between the White river, Wabash, and Rocky river, and containing upwards of 3,000,000 of acres, was sold from four to thirty dollars an acre, after the reservation of the most fertile parts, given as a donation to the officers who had served on the Niagara frontier. The lands of the settlement of New Switzerland were purchased at two dollars, in 1805; the lands of Harrison village, on the north side of White Water, are valued at between forty and sixty dollars an acre. In the town of Vincennes building lots sell at from 50 to 1000 dollars a lot. The land offices in this state are, one at Vincennes, on the Wabash, the other at Jeffersonville, on the Ohio.
In general, improved lands, or farms of fifteen or twenty acres, with a log-house, can be purchased from eiffht to ten dollars an acre. *
The manufactures, in 1810, amounted to 196,552 dollars, besides doubtful articles, valued at 61,108 dollars.
Woollen, cotton, hempen, and flaxen cloths, 159,052 dollars. Cotton and wool spun in mills, > ]50
1380 spinning wheels.
• Prices at Brookville, in December 1817.—Beef 4 to5 cents per pound : corn, 25 cents per bushel; wheat, 62 cents ditto; fowls, 1 dollar per dozen; eggs, 6^ cents ditto; pork, 3 to 4 cents per pound; butter, 19 cents ditto.
Prices at Princetown, in August 1817 Wheat, 3s. 4£d. sterling per Winchester bushel; oats, Is. 4d.; Indian corn, 1 Id.; hay, 35s. pei ton; flour, 36s per barrel, (196 lb. nett;) fowls, 4|d. each; eggs, ^d.; buiter, 6d. per pound ; meat, 2d.; a buck, 4s. 6d. without the skin; salt, 3s. 4d per bushel; tobacco, 3d.per pound; a good cow, 12 to 20 dollars; a two year old heifer, 6 dollars: ewes, 3 dollars a-heud; a sow, 3 dollars; a stout horse for drawing, 60 dollars or upwards. Boarding in a tavern, 2 dollars per week. Travelling expences are very regular, amounting to a dollar per day for a man and horse. Birkbeck's Notes, p. 143.
Nails, pounds 20,000, - - 4 000 dollars.
Leather twined, . 9>300
'.28 distilleries, - - - 16.230
Wine from grapes, barrels 9^> - 6,000
Gunpowder, ... l,S0p
33 flour mills. 14 saw mills.
Maple sugar, pounds 50,000.
The Harmonists, established at Harmony, cultivate the vine, exercise various mechanical arts, and have an extensive wool manufactory. Their Merino cloth is excellent. r
Commerce.—The external trade of this colony is carried on with New Orleans, and is yet very inconsiderable. Goods are brought from Canada, down the Wabash; from the eastermost states, down the Ohio; and from New Orleans, by the Mississippi and up the Wabash. One branch of this last river forms a communication with the river St Joseph, and another with the easternmost branch of the Miami of the Lakes, through which there is a passage to Lake Erie, with the exception of a short portage. \?
Forts.—Fort Harrison, situated on the Wabash river, has a garrison of 150 riflemen, of the regular army. Fort Dearborn stands upon the left bank of Chicago river, which empties itself into Lake Michigan, on the south-western extremity. Its garrison was destroyed, in September 1815, by the Pottowatamie Indians, but has been since re-established. Fort Wayne, at the confluence of the St Joseph's and St Mary's river, near the north-eastern angle of the state.
Roads.—From Vincennes two roads lead to the Ohio, a third to Fort Harrison, a fourth to Princetown, and a fifth to Kaskaskia.
Newspapers.—At Brookville, " The PlainDealer;" at Vevay, " The Indiana Registerat Lexington, "The Western Eagleat Corydon, "The Indiana Gazetteat Vincennes, " The Western Sun."
Manners and Character.—Indiana is but recently settled; but many of the settlers are of a respectable class, and their manners are more refined than could be expected in a place where society is but in its infancy. They are sober and industrious; drunkenness is rare, and quarrelling rare in proportion. They set a high value on the right of personal resistance to aggression. They possess great energy of character; and, though they respect the laws generally, do not hesitate sometimes to redress what they consider a public injury, by a more summary mode of proceeding. They are, however, friendly and obliging. Insanity is scarcely known, either in this or the other western states. The inhabitants of Vincennes, who are chiefly of French extraction, are neat and cleanly, and still retain strong traces of French good breeding. Religion.—The number of Baptists, the denomination which prevails in Indiana, was stated in the general report of May 1817 to be 2474; the number of churches, 67. We have not been able to ascertain the number belonging to other sects.
History.—When the French descended the Wabash, and established posts on its borders, it was inhabited by different Indian nations, the Kickapoos, Pyankashaws, Musquitons, Ouitanons, and others, whose warriors amounted to upwards of 1200, and, according to French tradition, they were once far more numerous. It is said, that the country lying between the Wabash and Mississippi being claimed by the Indians of both these rivers, it was mutually agreed, that it should become the prize of the victors in an engagement between 1000 warriors of each, who fought from the rising to the setting sun, when the former were declared conquerors, having seven men surviving, while the other had but five. The ground on which Fort Harrison stands was the theatre of this bloody scene; the bodies of the slain were inclosed in the neighbouring mounds. The French colonists, long after their first establishments in this country, lived on terms of friendship with the Indian proprietors of the soil; formed marriages with their women, joined in their hunting parties, and lived contented with the produce of the chace, of their cattle, and gardens. But, in the year 1782, a detachment of soldiers from Kentucky penetrated to their villages, plundered them, and carried off many of their cattle. The year following, peace ensued, and they came under the protection of the United States. During the period of war with the Indians, which commenced in 1788, they suffered many vexations, and were obliged to perform military services of a severe nature.
By the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, the United States obtained six miles square at the mouth of Chicago river; the same quantity at the junction of the St Mary's and St Joseph's; one half of this extent at the head of the Little river branch of the Wabash, eight miles south-west of Fort Wayne; and six miles