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White river are white oak, hickery, and black walnut. The hills of Whitewater river terminate in a level and rich country, thickly wooded with oak, walnut, beech, ash, elm, hickery, maple, sugar tree, &c. On Silver creek, Canerun, and other branches of the Ohio, and the south fork of White river, hickery and oak abound. The banks of Blue river are also covered with oak and locust; the neighbouring hills with black walnut, oak, hickery, ash, sugar maple ; the low intervening grounds with bass-wood, papaw, honey-locust, buck-eye, and spice-wood, with the wild vine, and various shrubs. Along the borders of Whitewater river, ginseng grows to an uncommon size; on the poor soil of the spurs of the hills, the columbo root abounds. The cane grows to the south of the ridge of hills, which extend from the falls of the Ohio to those of the Wabash, above the mouth of White river, and in some places as far north as the mouth of the Big Miami. An extraordinary phenomenon is met with in this country in the woods along White river,—natural wells, from ten to fifteen feet deep, formed by the decay of the trunks and roots of large sycamore trees.
Animals.—The woods abound with deer. Bears and wolves are also numerous. Of the feathered race of game, wild turkeys, ducks, and pigeons, swarm in the woods, and on the waters of the northern parts. The rattlesnake and copperhead snake infest the woody country, but are seldom seen on the low lands. Fishes.—Of the fish which inhabit the rivers, we find no particular account. The Great Kennomic of Lake Michigan is said to furnish the Indians with an inexhautible supply. *
Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Indiana, with the Population of each County and Chief Town in 1810, the year of the last Enumeration.
Counties. Population. Chief Towns.
Clarke, 7000 Jeffersonville. f
Dearborn, 5i26 Lawrenceburgh. J
Franklin, 7970 Brookville. $
• Western Gazetteer, p. 77
■f Jeffersonville, situated on the bank of the Ohio, a little above the falls, and nearly opposite Louisville, contained, in 1816', about 130 houses.
\ Lawrenceburgh, situated on the Ohio river, two miles below the mouth of the Big Miami, has not succeeded as was expected, owing to the annual inundation of the river. A new town has been laid out half a mile farther up on an elevated situation, and named Edinburgh. A place called " Rising Sun," in the same county of Dearborn, situated on an elevated bank of the Ohio, between Vevay and Lawrenceburgh, contains thirty or forty houses. Its growth has been rapid; and it will probably become a place of considerable trade.
§ Brookville, in Franklin county, situated between the branches of White river, thirty miles north of Lawrenceburgh, was established in 1811; but being within fifteen miles of the Indian line of demarcation, it did not increase during the late war; since the peace, however, its growth has been very rapid. In 1816' it contained eighty dwelling-houses, a grist-mill, two saw-mills, two fulling-mills, three carding-machines, and a printing-office, besides a great number of workshops. The ground, elevated between seventy and eighty feet above the level of the river, is dry and pleasant, and is peculiarly favourable for the establishment of manufactures, the branches of the river affording fine situations for the erection of
water-machinery. Harrison village, in the same county, eight miles from the mouth of Whitewater, on the northern side, and eighteen north-east of Brookville, commenced about the year 1800, and in 1816 contained thirty-five houses.
* Vincennes, formerly St Vincent, situated in latitude 38° 51' north, on the east side of the Wabash river, on a level and beautiful surface, nearly 200 miles from its junction with the Ohio, following its course, but 100 only in a straight line, contained in 1816 about 100 houses. The inhabitants raise Indian corn, wheat, and tobacco of excellent quality. They have a fine breed of horses, (brought originally by the Indians from the Spanish settlements on the western side of the river Mississippi,) and large herds of swine and black cattle. The settlers deal with the natives for furs and deer skins, to the amount of L. 5000 annually. In 1817 steam.mills upon an extensive scale were begun to be built. Ouitanon, a small stocked fort on the western side of the Wabash, traded with the neighbouring Indians to the amount of about L.8000 a-year.—(Hutchins, p. 28, 31.)
f Vevay, situated on the bank of the Ohio, was laid out in 1813; and in 1816 the number of dwelling-houses had increased to eightyfour; the shops for mechanics to thirty-four; the stores to eight; the taverns to three. A court-house, jail, and school-house, were then building of brick materials. Vevay is seventy miles by water, and forty-five by land, below Cincinnati. New Switzerland, near the former, extending four miles along the Ohio from Indian creek or Venoge, was established in 1805 by emigrants from the Paysde Vaud, with the view of cultivating the vine. The vineyards are now very extensive, and the settlement is in a prosperous state.
In 1800 the population amounted to4,875
1810, 24,520 of whom 237 were slaves.
1815, 68,784 According to the numeration of 1810 there were 23,890 whites.
237 slaves. 393 fr. blacks.
Increase in five years, 44,264
The settlements extend chiefly along the Ohio, the branches of the Big Miami, the Wabash, and theWhitewater river. The most ancient and most populous part of the state is Knox county, on the east side of the Wabash river, and watered by several of its branches, the Decke, White river, Little river, St Ma
Longevity.—Mr David Thomas, a Quaker, in a letter to the editor of the Western Gazetteer, dated 2d June 1817, states, "that there are now living at Vincennes four Frenchmen who were at the defeat of General Braddock, and have lived in that place between fifty and sixty years. There are also two French women between eighty and ninety years old, and one person of the name of Mills lately died aged 115. These instances, it must be noticed, have not been selected from a large city, but a frontier town of small population.
ry's, Busseron, Racoon, and Ambush creeks. It contains 20,000 acres of the best meadow and alluvial land.
Constitution.—Indiana was under a territorial government till 1816. Agreeably to an act of congress, of 16th April that year, a convention was held at Corydon, on the 29th June, consisting of forty-one delegates, chosen by all the male citizens of the state who were twenty-one years of age, had paid taxes, and resided a year in the territory. These delegates framed the constitution of the state.
The first article declares, that all power is inherent in the people, that all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness; and that, for the advancement of these ends, they have, at all times, an unalienable and indefeasible right to alter or reform their government as they may deem proper; that all men have a natural right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man shall be compelled to attend any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; that no preference shall be given by law to any religious sect; that no religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office of trust or profit; that elections shall be free and equal; the right of trial by jury inviolate in all civil cases where the value in controversy shall exceed the sum of twenty dollars, and in all criminal cases, except in petit misdemeanours, which shall be punishable by fine only, not exceeding three dollars, in such manner as the legislature may prescribe by law. All persons, their houses, papers, and effects, to be secure against unrea