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branches of the latter have a communication with those of Eel river. The north-western parts are watered by several streams flowing into Lake Michigan ; the ri. vers Chemin, Big and Little Kennomic ; the Thea. kiki, Kickapoo, and many smaller streams.
Chicago river, which runs into the south-western extremity of Lake Michigan, at the distance of sixteen miles from its mouth, divides into two branches. It forms a harbour, into which sloops of forty tons enter, The Great Kennomic, which also empties into Lake Michigan, thirty miles east of the former, has its source at the distance of twenty or thirty miles south of this lake, and runs first nearly westward, in a direction parallel to the shore of the lake ; it then makes a doubling, and runs nearly eastward, after which it pursues a northern course, for a few miles, to the lake. Its outlet forms a spacious bay.
Lakes.—The upper parts of this state are diversified with a number of lakes, thirty-eight of which, delineated on the latest maps, are from two to ten miles in length; and the whole number is said to exceed a hundred. Some are found to have two outlets, into the lakes on one side, and into the Mississippi on the other. Most of these small lakes are situated between the sources of the two St Josephs, Black River, Raisin, Tippacanoe, and Eel rivers.
Extent of Navigable Waters.—The Ohio river washes the southern boundary of Indiana, for the distance of 472 miles; the Wabash is navigable 470 ; *
* The Wabash, at its mouth, is 300 yards wide; at Vincennes,
White river and its forks, 160; Petoka, 30; Blue river, 40; Whitewater, 40; Rocky river, 45 ; Pomme, 30; Massassinway, 45; Eel and Little rivers, 60; western tributaries of the Wabash, 330; St Joseph's of the Miami and Panther's creek, 75; Elkhart and part of St Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 100; Great and Little Kennomic, 120; Chemin river, 40; Chicago and Kickapoo, 80; Theakiki and parts of Fox, Plein, and Illinois, 500; * southern coast of Lake Michigan, 50. In all, 2487.
100 miles from its mouth, from forty to seventy rods, and it is navigable thence to the rapids of Ouitabon, for keel boats, or barges drawing three feet water, about 212 miles. Above this village small boats ascend nearly 200 miles farther, to within six miles of St Mary's river, len of Fort Wayne, and eight of the St Joseph's, flowing into the Miami of the lakes. The banks of this beautiful river are bigh, and less subject to inundation than any other in this country, except the Ohio, though when the waters rise in March, its borders are partially overflowed from Fort Harrison to Vincennes, 120 miles by water, and 55 by land, and opposite this last place to the distance of four or five miles, which obliges the farmers to remove their cattle and swine. The rapids at Quitanon are impassable for boats, but small vessels of thirty tons burden can navigate between this place and Vincennes.
* Portages. In the northern parts of the state the Wabash and Illinois rivers are connected with Lakes Erie and Michigan, by nu. merous branches, which issue from sources near one another. Of twenty portages near the Michigan frontier, only two have been traversed by the White settlers. One extending nine miles, between near Fort Wayne on the St Mary's, and the Little river branch of the Wabasb, is a good route in dry seasons. It was by this channel the French passed from the lakes to their post on the Wabash river. The other portage, much shorter, extends between VOL. II.
A company, with a capital of a million of dollars, has been incorporated by the legislature, for the purpose of opening a canal along the falls, or rapids, of the Ohio, which, when executed, will be of great advantage.
Minerals.-Silver ore is said to have been discover. ed at a place about twenty-eight miles above Ouitanon, on the northern side of the Wabash ; * copperas on the high bank of Silver creek, about two miles from its mouth ; iron ore on White river, and other places. Between White river and New Lexington, the wells are so impregnated with copperas, that they blacken linen ; and being considered by the inhabitants as very unwholesome, several of them have on this account abandoned their habitations. A chalybeate spring, containing sulphur and iron, near Jeffersonville, is much frequented. Coal.-Mr Hutchins states, “ that the hills are replenished with the best coal ; that there is plenty of swinestone and freestone ; blue, yellow, and white clay, for glassworks and pottery.” There is a coal mine a little below the forks of White river.
Salt Springs. Some valuable salt springs have been discovered on the Wabash river, and also on Salina creek, which are leased by the government of the Unit.
the Chicago and Kickapoo branch of the Illinois, and so level is the surface, that during the rise of their waters, boats pass be tween Lake Michigan and the Ilinois river. +
* Hutchins, p. 28.
+ See Volney's account of this internal water communication between the akes and waters of the Mississippi.
ed States to contractors, who are obliged not to receive more for salt than half a dollar a bushel at the works ; but through the agency of private copartners, it is not sold at the storehouses for less than two dollars. * Near the town of New Lexington, at the depth of 520 feet, the salt wells give from three to four bushels of salt to the hundred gallons of water. These works are the property of General Macfarland. Glauber's salt, or sulphate of potash, has been lately found in a cave situated twelve miles from the Ohio river, and about the same distance west of New Albany. The quantity is so great as to promise an inexhaustible supply. Epsom salt (sulphate of magnesia) has been also found in a cave about thirty-five leagues from Louisville ; and saltpetre exists in certain caves in the neighbourhood. A section of land of 160 acres, containing these treasures, was purchased † at two dollars an acre.
Forest Trees and Shrubs.- Mr Hutchins remarks, that the timber on the Wabash river is large, high, and in such variety, that almost all the different kinds growing upon the Ohio, and its branches, (but with a greater proportion of black and white mulberry trees) may be found here. † The natural meadows are in. tersected by narrow woods, containing oak, ash, maple, locust, poplar, plum, and the crab-apple tree. On the outside of these meadows oak abounds, and grows to a great size. The principal trees on the branches of
White river are white oak, hickery, and black walnut.
The hills of Whitewater river terminate in a level and rich country, thickly wooded with oak, walnut, beech, ash, elm, hickery, maple, sugar tree, &c. On Silver creek, Canerun, and other branches of the Ohio, and the south fork of White river, hickery and oak abound. The banks of Blue river are also covered with oak and locust; the neighbouring hills with black walnut, oak, hickery, ash, sugar maple ; the low intervening grounds with bass-wood, papaw, honey-locust, buck-eye, and spice-wood, with the wild vine, and various shrubs. Along the borders of Whitewater river, ginseng grows to an uncommon size ; on the poor soil of the spurs of the hills, the columbo root abounds. The cane grows to the south of the ridge of hills, which extend from the falls of the Ohio to those of the Wabash, above the mouth of White river, and in some places as far north as the mouth of the Big Miami. An extraordinary phenomenon is met with in this country in the woods along White river, -natural wells, from ten to fifteen feet deep, formed by the decay of the trunks and roots of large sycamore trees.
Animals.- The woods abound with deer. Bears and wolves are also numerous. Of the feathered race of game, wild turkeys, ducks, and pigeons, swarm in the woods, and on the waters of the northern parts. The rattlesnake and copperhead snake infest the woody country, but are seldom seen on the low lands. Fishes. Of the fish which inhabit the rivers, we find no particular account. The Great Kennomic of Lake