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Marriage is solemnized by a justice in the county, or by an ordained minister of the parish where the parties reside.
The incorporated towns, five in number, are Newhaven, Hartford, New London, Norwich, and Middletown. A great variety of manufactures are now established. Those for domestic purposes are more than equal to the consumption.
Product of Mineral Substances.—Iron ware, hollow iron ware, and other species of ironmongery are made at Stafford, in sufficient quantity for the supply of the state. Iron works, at Salisbury, Norwich, Stafford, and East Hartford. Nails—several manufactories, which are multiplied in proportion to the increasing demand. Tinned plates for culinary purposes, and iron wire. The manufactures have been valued at 250,000 dollars. Metal buttons have been manufactured at Waterbury and Newhaven, of which the annual amount has been estimated at 100,000 dollars. There are glass and iron works at East Hartford. At Newhaven there is a very extensive manufactory of arms.
Official Report in 1810.
Glass, two glass works, value - - 27,360 dollars.
Twelve potteries, - 30,710
Gunpowder, .... 43,6'40
Marble, manufactured, ... 11,000
Bricks, - 2,000
Product of Vegetable Substances.—An immense quantity of maise is raised, which is a hearty and strengthening food for man, cattle, and poultry; it is said to make horses liable to founder. Paper is manufactured in different places. There is a cotton and linen manufactory at Newhaven. Of sewing silk, a large manufactory at Mansfield. Of cider, every family has a plentiful supply. In June 1815, there were eight cotton factories in the county of New London.
Official Report in 1810.
Flaxseed, 24 mills, value - - 64,719 dollars.
Spirits, 1,374,404 gallons, - - - 811,144
Carriages, .... 68,855
Wooden clocks, No. 14,565, - 122,955
Paper, - - - - - 82,188
Straw bonnets, - - - 27,100
Product of Animal Substances.—Tanneries are numerous. Soap, oil, and candles, are manufactured by every family, and, in several places, on a large scale. Of pork, an immense quantity is cured for domestic use, and foreign sale. Cheese and butter are in great plenty. In June 1815, there were fourteen woollen manufactories in New London county. That at Humphreysville * is on a large scale, and the cloth made there is of a superior quality. Capital employed 500,000 dollars.
* Situated on the Raugatuc, at the head of the Tide Water, four miles above its confluence with the Hausatonic. This company is incorporated with a capital of 500,000 dollars, and a credit equal to the sum invested.
CONNECTICUT. 27In 1810.
Tortoise-shell, ivory, and horn, - 70,000 dollars'
Accorditig to the official report of this date, of
miscellaneous goods, the quantity was valued at 71,612 The whole amount of manufactures in the state, 7,771,928 Besides bricks, considered as doubtful in relation
to manufacture, - - 2,000
Agriculture.—The whole state is divided into farms of from 50 to 500 acres, holden in fee-simple by the cultivators thereof, who, without being rich, live in the most comfortable manner. The painted dwellings and farm houses, surrounded with woods and orchards, give a very animated appearance to the country. The principal agricultural productions are Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, buck-wheat, wheat in some parts, flax and hemp. The uplands, well manured, give from 40 to 50 bushels of Indian corn per acre. Rye is raised in considerable quantity; and tobacco thrives well.
Produce.—The greatest produce of the township of Newhaven is as follows: Wheat, 40 bushels per acre; rye, 28; barley, 45; maize, 80; oats, t0; flax, 620 lbs.; grass, 4 tons. *
Culinary Plants.—Potatoes, pumpkins, turnips, peas, onions, beans, &c. t Weatherfield is famous for its produce of onions.
* Dwight's Statistical Account of Newhaven, cited by Dr Morse.
'f Dr Douglas informs us, that, on the first arrival oi Europeans, , the Indian corn was the oniy cercalia cultivated; and the French' or kidney beans the only kind of pulse.
Fruit.—The orchards produce fine apples, peaches, and cherries.
The silk worm has been reared in one or two places, but little silk has been produced, owing to the high price of labour, and the low rate at which this article is imported from France and Italy.
Grasses.—Red and white top grasses, black grsss, and white clover. The vallies and artificial meadows produce two tons of hay per acre. The wild daisy does not thrive.
Horses, neat Cattle and Sheep, are raised in great numbers. The horses are generally slender; with a long switch tail and mane, have a good head and neck, but fall off in the hinder parts, being, in the language of the jockey,*"goose-rumped, and cat-ham'd." The Merino breed of sheep was first introduced into this state by Colonel Humphreys.
The price of land varies, as in other states, according to its quality and situation. The quality is indicated by the growth of trees. The best lands produce chestnuts and walnuts; those of a secondary quality, beech and white oak; the next, fir, pitch, and pine; and the worst are covered with shrubs, whortle, huckleberry, &c. In 1749, during a dry state of weather, in the months of June and July, the herbage was destroyed by a small grasshopper. Wheat is attacked by the Hessian fly, and is liable to be blasted near the barberry bush.
Value of Lands and Houses, as established by the Assessors of the Direct Tax. In 1799, lands, - - 40,163,955 dollars.
Houses, - - 8,149,479
In 1814, they amounted to - 86,550,033
Increase in 15 years, - 38,236,599
Commerce.—The exports consist of live-stock, timber, grain, fish, pork, beef, cider, butter, and cheese; also articles of iron and steel manufacture, which are exported to the West India islands, and maritime parts of the Union. To the Carolinas and Georgia are sent salt beef, butter, cheese, hay, potatoes, apples, and cider, in exchange for rice, indigo, or treasure. The exports, in 1805, amounted to 1,443,7^9 dollars; in 1810, to 768,643. * The imports consist of wines, groceries, and European manufactured goods, of the finer kind. The shipping, which, in 1800, amounted to 32,867 tons, was increased in 1811 to more than 45,000 tons. The ports of entry are five in number; New London, Newhaven, Fairfield, Middletown, and Stonington. The two principal harbours are those of New London and Newhaven. The former, which is fortified, admits of large vessels; the latter, situated near the mouth of the Thames, is well adapted for commercial purposes.
There are light-houses at New London, Faulkner's island, Lynde point, Five-mile point, and Fairweather island.
* Diminution occasioned by the non~mtercourse.