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sity" can scarcely be said to have an existence. The "Circulating Library Society" of this place, which opened in 18J4, contained, two years afterwards, 8000 volumes. Another society called the "School of Literature and the Arts," was established in 1813. In the Lancasterian seminary for the instruction of children of both sexes, AOo were admitted in less than two weeks after the opening of the institution, and 12,000 dollars were immedialy subscribed by the inhabitants, for the erection of the edifice, which, when completed, will contain 1100 persons.
Newspapers.—At Cincinnati, in 1817, the " West" em Spy," and " The Cincinnati Gazette," issue about 1500 papers each weekly. At Hamilton, on the east bank of the Miami, the "Miami Intelligencer" is published weekly; at Dayton, on the east bank of the Great Miami, the "Ohio Republican," weekly; at Lebanon, the "Western Spy;" at Williamsburg, on the east branch of the Little Miami, two weekly newspapers, called the " Political Censor," and " Western American." At Xenia, in Green county, " The Ohio Vehicle." At Urbanna, two miles east of Mad river, the "Spirit of Liberty." At Chillicothe, on the west bank of the Scioto, "The Freedonian," and "Supporter." At Zanesville, on the east bank of the Muskingum river, the " Muskingum Messenger," and "Zanesville Express." At Stubenville, on the Ohio river, " The Western Herald."
The Western Emigrant Society at Cincinnati has for its object to collect and communicate such information, of every kind, as would be most useful to persons emj-. grating to any part of the western country; and to assist such as, through sickness or other misfortune, maybe reduced to extreme want. It is enjoined as a duty on every member, to pay particular attention to such emigrants as may apply to him, to give them all practicabb information, to guard them against impositions, and to render them every friendly office in his power. Persons at a distance, wishing to receive or communicate information, must direct their communications to the corresponding secretary, Nathan Guilford. *
Agriculture.—The soil, in general, is found to be highly favourable to the growth of wheat, Indian corn, rye, oats, and barley; indigo and tobacco also thrive. Some districts are wonderfully fruitful. At Coshocton, on the Muskingum river, 4500 bushels of corn were produced from eighty acres; and the cattle raised on ninety acres of a similar soil were valued at 2100 dollars. The produce of Indian corn, with good culture, is from sixty to a hundred bushels an acre; but the general average crop is about forty-five. That of wheat has been estimated at twenty-two bushels per acre, though in some places it has increased to forty. The average crop of rye is about twenty-five bushels per acre; that of oats, thirty-five; and of barley, thirty. In Miami country, the rye is only cultivated for the. purpose of extracting a spirit from the grain, and the
* From the 19th of September to the 21st of October 1817, 511 waggons of emigrants passed through Easton in Pennsylvania, principally for the state of Ohio; allowing six persons to each waggon, the whole number would be 3066.
straw serves as a provender for horses. Barley is chiefly used as malt for brewing. At Galliopolis, good wine is made from a native grape, which, in size and flavour, resembles the French muscadin. A vineyard of six acres, in the vicinity, was expected in 1817 to produce 1000 gallons of wine. Flax and hemp are cultivated to a considerable extent; but the seed is found to be inferior to that of the Atlantic states.
Cotton arrives at maturity in the southern parts, but is liable to be injured by the frost. The author of the work entitled " American Husbandry," is amazed that the cultivation of madder was not introduced into the United States, and particularly the country of Ohio, where the rich, deep, and flexible mould, is so favourable to its culture, and the climate very similar to that of Turkey, where it is a common spontaneous production.
Times of some of the principal Rural Operations.— Near the close of March, peas, radishes, and other annual esculent vegetables planted; about the middle of May, Indian corn planted; last week in June, the hay is gathered; the first week in July, rye harvest; the second week, wheat harvest; the last week, oats reaped; the last week of October, Indian corn gathered.
The grasses generally cultivated are Timothy, red and white clover, and spear-grass, of which the mean produce is two tons per acre. In some counties, particularly in those of Champaign and Green, the pasture is admirably fitted for grazing. The annual amount of the fat cattle of the former has been esti
mated at 100,000 dollars. Sheep thrive well, and the mutton is superior to that of the Atlantic states.
Fruits.—There is a great variety of excellent fruits, of which the most valuable are apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and plums. The peach tree, from the fruit of which a delicious liquor is extracted, * arrives at maturity, from the kernel, the third or fourth year. It has been stated in some of the American journals, that an apple from the orchard of Judge Wood, near the Great Miami, in October 1815, was found to measure five inches in diameter, and to weigh twenty-two ounces. The wild grape grows luxuriantly on the south side of all the hills, and some of the vines of Europe have been successfully cultivated here. At Louisville and other places, wine of the country is sold in the taverns under the name of Cape claret, and dossel or alicant. The latter at a dollar ; the former at seventy-five cents.
Silk.—The climate and soil are favourable for the production of this article. In August 1771, above 10,000 weight of cocoons was sold at the public filature in Philadelphia, and the silk was found to be of a good quality.—(American Husbandry, p. 285.)
Price of Lands.—The general price of uncultivated lands, without any particular local advantages, is two dollars. This is the price of those belonging to the United States, which may be purchased, in some places, at a lower rate, for ready money. The alluvial or bottom lands, and dry fertile meadows, give the highest price. The next quality are the elevated grounds pro
* Fifteen bushels of peaches yield about six gallons of brandy.
ducing hickery, walnut, ash, elm, maple tree, honey locust, papaw, and hackberry. The third in value are those covered with beech, and the cheapest are tracts which produce only white and black oak.*
"The average price of fertile and uncultivated land in the settled portion of the Miami country is eight dollars; if cultivated, twelve; a tract of land of more than 300,000 acres, situated between Miami rivers, which was purchased from the government by Mr Symmes, of New Jersey, in 1787, for two thirds of a dollar per acre, has been generally sold since that time at two dollars; near the principal villages of the Miami country, the price is from twenty to forty dollars; in more remote situations, from four to eight ^ improvements increase the value from 25 to 100per cent. * On the Scioto river bottom lands uncleared are valued at five dollars. On the Ohio river, in an improved state, they sell from two to ten dollars per acre; farther back, from two to five; and rough hilly lands, with a small portion of good land, in large tracts, from fifty cents to a dollar, f
In 1815, good improved land, within three miles of Cincinnati, was sold from 50 to 150 dollars an acre; but farms in a half improved state are frequently offered for sale from two to six dollars. In Hamilton county, in the south-western corner of the state, land in an unimproved state is from ten to twenty-five dollars; and cultivated farms, near Cincinnati, from thirty to seventy.
In the excellent work on American Husbandry, already noticed, signs are given by which the purchaser may judge of the soil, not only in Ohio, but also in all the central and southern colonies. The land is good, and there is abundance of fine tall red hickery trees, white chestnut, and scarlet oaks, tulip trees, black walnuts, locusts, mulberry, and the value will usually be in proportion to the size and straightness of those trees, and the absence of underwood. Among the signs of bad land are pines, live and water oaks, locusts, bays,