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Internal Government.-Towns are incorporated by the legislature of the state; and are formed into wards, in each of which trustees are elected for a limited time, who appoint the mayor, recorder, clerk, and treasurer,
1 O per dozen.
0 25 per gallon.
050 Peach brandy,
April 9th 1817.
D. €. Apples, per barrel, - from 4 25 to 4 50 Bacon, per lb.
0 Beef, do.
0 5 0 6 Bees-wax, do. .
0 20 0 25 Butter, do. Candles, do. Cheese, do. Corn, per bushel, Corn meal, do. . Eggs, per dozen, Flax-seed, per gallon, Flax oil, per do. Flour, per barrel, Do, per cwt. Do. buckwheat, do. Fowls, per dozen, Gingseng, dried,
200 Hay, per ton,
- 10 0 * Palmer's Travels, p. 8%.
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who form a council, invested with powers to make and enforce such laws and regulations as they may think proper for the good government of the town, and to assess a tax on real estates, which, without a vote of their constituents, cannot exceed one-half per cent. annually. Three trustees, with several subordinate officers, are annually elected in each township, whose duty it is to assess and collect taxes for the support of the poor, to keep the roads and streets in good repair, to select jurors, and generally to superintend the affairs of the township. Three county commissioners are
D. C. D. C. Hemp, per ton,
. from 100 0 to 120 0 Hog's lard, per lb. Molasses, per gallon, - - 0 80 1 0 Oats, per bushel,
. 033 0 37 Potatoes, per bushel,
- 0 40 Sugar, (coun.) per lb.
0 18 Venison hams, each,
0 25 Whisky, per gallon,
Price of Labour. A common labourer, per day, ..
0 75 Do do do. with food, Masons and other tradesmen,
1 0 Bricklayers, for 1000 bricks, Do, for laying,
2 30 Stone-cutters and carpenters have the same prices as at Phi. ladelphia. Mechanics, manufacturers, and labourers, receive per day from 75 cents to 1 dollar 50 cents. Throughout the whole country, which has a water communication with the Ohio river, the price of articles is nearly the same, except at Cleveland and other places near Lake Erie. In general, the price of living is one third cheaper than in the eastern states. . .
elected in each county for the term of three years, with powers to levy taxes, for purposes in which the district is interested, to superintend the direction of public buildings, and to manage the affairs of the county. There is a recorder's office in each county, for recording all deeds and other documents of a valuable nature, of which a certified copy, by the recorder, is equally valid with the original. This officer is appointed for seven years, by the court of common pleas; he receives no salary, and the fees of office are fixed by law.
Attornies and councillors at law are examined and licensed by the supreme court, after producing certificates of their having pursued a regular course of law studies, or of being already admitted to practice else where, and that their moral conduct has been correct. No previous residence is required, but the applicant must declare upon oath that he intends to reside in the state.
Laws.-The laws are published annually, accompanied with a statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money, which cannot be drawn from the treasury but in virtue of appropriations made by law. The criminal code has lately undergone revision, and the number of capital offences has been reduced from five to two,-murder and treason. Dr Drake states, that, in the town of Cincinnati, there have been but two convictions for murder, which took place five years after the first settlement; both felons were foreigners by birth; the one was pardoned, the other executed. Paupers are not entitled to support from
the township, unless they have resided a year therein, and are found to be in want, in which case they are exposed to auction, and given in charge to the person who agrees to support them on the lowest terms. Profane swearing, and illicit intercourse between the sexes, are punished by a pecuniary fine.
Slavery and involuntary servitude are abolished; no indenture of any negro or mulatto hereafter made and executed out of the state, where the term of services exceeds one year, is valid, except when given in the state of apprenticeship. A slave, as soon as he touches the soil of Ohio, is free, but he is denied the right of suffrage. By a statute of 1804, afterwards amended, free negroes are denied a residence in the state, unless they give security by bond, that neither they nor their children shall become a public charge; and both negroes and mulattoes are incapable of giving testimony against white persons. This last provision is generally carried into effect, but the former, being considered unconstitutional, is not enforced. The blacks of Cina cinnati, who are most numerous, are described by Dr Drake, as good-humoured, garrulous, and profligate, generally disinclined to laborious occupations, and prone to the performance of light and menial drudgery. Some few excercise the humbler trades, and some appear to have formed a correct conception of the objects and valne of property, and are both industrious and economical. A large proportion of them are reputed, and perhaps correctly, to be habituated to petty lar. ceny, but no more than one individual has been punished corporally, by the courts of justice, since the settle. ment of the town.
Religion.—The constitution of the state declares, « that all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God, according to the dictates of conscience; that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent.” We have not been able to ascertain the number of members of the different religious denominations in this state. That of Baptists, according to the report of their general convention, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, was 3628; that of churches, 67. The chief religious denominations are Methodists, Presbyterians, Seceders, Baptists, and New-lights.
At Cincinnati, there is a “ Female Society for Charitable Purposes,” consisting of forty members, whose funds, raised by annual subscriptions, donations, and collections at charity sermons, are appropriated to the support of a mission in Louisiana, to the use of the theological seminary at Princeton for the purchase of Bibles, and the relief of indigent individuals of their own sex.
The churches are: the Methodist Episcopal church; the first Baptist church; the Society of Friends ; and the Lutheran Society. In the Baptist congregation there is a male and female Society for the Support of Foreign Missions.
The Cincinnati Bible Society, consisting of persons of all religious denominations, has for its object the distribution of the Scriptures among the poor of the