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sometimes airing on horseback, or in a carriage.” It is remarked by Dr Forsyth, that the practice of drink. ing ardent spirits to excess is very common, owing to the low price of whisky and peach brandy;, so that, while we are getting rid in some measure of the diseases consequent on a new settlement, another more formidable evil is generating its baneful effects among us. Many heads of families have a practice, in the morning, of bringing out the brandy bottle, and treating each other to a morning dram.
Diseases.-Dr Drake, from whom we derive our information on this subject, observes, “ that the diseases of this state are common in the same latitudes east of the Alleghany mountains, but that some are less violent and frequent ; that pulmonary consumption, which, in some of the towns of the Atlantic states, de. stroys from a fourth to a sixth of the persons who die annually, in the town of Cincinnati does not occasion one twentieth of the deaths. In the winter season there are cases of pleurisy and peripneumony, which, often united with bilious affections, become of difficult cure without the aid of mercury. The croup often prevails, and carries off yearly a number of children. It is frequently attended with bilious symptoms, and in the months of June and July is sometimes connect. ed with cholera infantium, a disease more fatal to chil. dren than any other to which they are subject. Rheu. matism is not so frequent nor so formidable as in the northern states. Colds, catarrhs, swelled tonsils, and other affections of the throat, occur here as in the maritime parts, but do not appear to be so often followed
by consumption. The toothach, jaw-ach, and premature decay of teeth, are not so frequent as in some districts of New England; according to Dr Hazletine, they form an eighth part of all the diseases incident to the province of Maine. In autumn remitting and intermitting fevers prevail along the water courses. The dysentery sometimes becomes epidemic, but is seldom mortal. Inflammation of the liver is not more common than in the same latitudes of the maritime states. In country places the jaundice is a common disease, but is seldom fatal. Goitre, * scrofula, rickets, scurvy, locked-jaw, and apoplexy, are rare, as are also the gout, calculus, and palsy. Ophthalmia sometimes becomes epidemic. A disease called the sick stomach has prevailed for several years on the head waters of the Great Miami, and in some of the adjoining parts in Kentucky, of which the chief symptoms are great debility, lassitude, and soreness of the extremities, and a vomiting on taking exercise. This disease, which is ascribed to some marsh exhalations, con. tinues sometimes for several months, attacks whole families, and affects even domestic animals, horses, cows, sheep, and dogs. The most frequent diseases in the Miami country are the measles and hooping-cough; but they seldom terminate fatally. The greatest mortality among adults is in August, September, and October, except when epidemics prevail in another season.
Dr Forsyth observes, that this disease is common and endemic at Wheeling, and at the confuence of the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers.
Emigrants, especially from New England and New York, become here subject to bilious and typhous fe. vers, to avoid which, Dr Drake observes, “ that they should endeavour to arrive in the Miami country late in autumn, and seek the most healthy situation before the ensuing summer, avoiding the marshy effluvia of ponds and morasses, and accommodating their clothing to the variations of temperature, particularly from heat to cold. In the summer of 1796, many of the inhabitants of Galliopolis fell victims to the yellow-fever, which originated from a quantity of animal and vegetable matter deposited in the small ponds and marshes within the limits of the village. * · At Marietta in 1808, containing nearly 1500 inhabitants, there were 140 births and 28 deaths : of the latter 11 were children of cholera infantium and convulsions. The deaths, in 1817, principally of bilious fever, were 51. 7 - History. The rivers which water the northern parts of the Ohio were known to the French in 1634 ; and in 1680 Delasalle penetrated from Quebec to the Mississippi ; but no establishment was made till about the year 1735, * when a small colony established itself at Vinsennes, on the eastern bank of the Wabash. The want of fresh land in Virginia was the chief motive for migrating across the mountains; and the advantages of soil and climate were soon made known in Europe,
* See Ellicot's Voyage down the river Ohin.
In France by La Honton, who describes the country to the south of Lake Erie as one of the finest on the globe, both in respect of climate and of soil, containing extensive meadows, and majestic woods full of deer, wild turkies, with great abundance of native grapes. In England it became known by the publication of Dr Mitchell, (in 1767,) who described it as one of the finest in all America, abounding with wild oxen and deer. In 1750, 600,000 acres of land on the borders of the Ohio river were granted by the British government to a company, who, in forming establishments, experienced opposition from the French traders. This circumstance induced the Governor of Canada to open a military communication between the fort of Presqu'ile and the Ohio river, by the channel of the Alleghany. In 1748 and 1749, the French had partly secured all this country by a line of forts, and drove back the British settlers, which terminated in a war. The important fort, (Duquesne,) at the junction of the Alleghany with the Monongahela river, was given up to the English, by whom it was called Fort Pitt, and afterwards Pittsburgh. After the conquest of this place emigration was renewed from the back parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and several plantations had been formed on the Ohio and its branches, when, in 1763, a proclamation appeared to prevent any settlement beyond the waters which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. But the lands were too fertile to be easily abandoned, and the proclamation was disregarded. This encouraged licentious spirit, and frequent quarrels took place with the six nations of Indians to whom the country be
longed, but who afterwards sold their rights to all the lands south of the river Ohio for the sum of L. 10,000 paid by the governor of Virginia. Owing to Indian hostilities no settlements were made within the actual limits of the state of Ohio before the year 1788, when Marietta was established at the mouth of the Muskingum river by emigrants from New England, under the patronage of the Ohio company. The foundation of other establishments was also laid at a place called the North Bead, above the mouth of the Great Miami, at Fort Washington, now Cincinnati, and at Columbia, below the mouth of the Little Miami. From these points the population extended along the Musk. ingum and the Great Miami rivers ; but its progress was slow until the year 1795, when, by the treaty of Grenville, a great portion of this country was ceded to the United States by the twelve Indian tribes to whom it then belonged. Other cessions were made in the years 1805, 1807, and 1808, by which they have aban. doned all claim except to the north-west corner, where they now reside. By the treaty of 1763 Great Britain relinquished to France all her pretensions to the country situated to the west of the Mississippi ; * but that on the east of this river, as far as the mountains, had been granted by charter to the states of Virginia and Connecticut ; in consequence of which, the former claimed the right of soil and jurisdiction between the parallels of 36° 30 and 41' north. The latter from
* England claimed jurisdiction over the whole continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.