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years of age to the whole white population, was, according to the census of 1810, as 9 to 100. The black population was lyO ), or nearly the 120th part of the whole population, being in proportion to the white as 83 to 1000. The Indian population, which is chiefly confined to the north-west corner of the state, amounted, in 1816, to 3086 as follows:
Wyandots, on Sandusky river and its waters, - 975
Shawanes, near the sources oi the Laglaise river, and on the upper waters of the Miami of the Ohio; their principal village, Wappagh Konetta, is twenty-seven miles north of Piqua, . - 840
Delawares, who live on the head waters of Sandusky and Muskingum, - - - 161
Senecas, who reside between Upper and Lower Sandusky, at and near Seneca town, - - 450
Senecas, Munseys, and Delawares, on the head waters of the Miami of the Ohio, at and near Lewistown, thirty miles uorth cast of Piqua, . * 434
Ottawas, who inhabit the southern shores of Lake Erie, about Miami bay, near Fort Meigs, and on the Laglaise river, number not stationary, about - 450
In the year 1817, (29th September,) the chiefs of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese, Senecas, Ottawas, Chippawas, and Potawatamies, ceded to the United States all the lands which they claimed within the state of Ohio, amounting to between seven and eight millions of acres, and of an excellent quality. This treaty was signed at the foot of the rapids of the Mia«
* Report of tl.e Indian agent, John Johnson, Esq.
mi of Lake Erie, with commissioners appointed by the president of the United States, Governor Macass and General Macarthur, at the close of the revolutionary war. The fighting men of the different tribes inhabiting this country were estimated by Hutchins at 1450. The remains of the ancient fortifications are numerous in this state. At Cincinnati there is a circular embankment 800 feet in diameter, thirty at the base, and from three to six high, and several others of smaller dimensions. There are also four mounds, one of which is twenty-seven feet high, and 440 in circumference. On the summit of an elevated hill, two miles below Hamilton, the walls of an ancient fortification, two or three feet high, enclose eighty acres of surface. Near Piqua, in Miami county, there are others of great extent; also near Lebanon, in Warren county. In Highland county, two miles west of Chillicothe, there is a wall of stone from twelve to fifteen feet high, and four or five thick, which encloses upwards of 100 acres. In Washington county there are the remains of very extensive fortifications. Near Piqua, in Miami county, says the author of the Western Gazetteer, there is one on my farm, which encloses about seventeen acres, of a circular form. The walls all round are in part built of stone, carried from the river 600 yards distant. The trees on all these forts are all as large as in the surrounding forests, and hence the conjecture, that the forts are not of less than 400 years standing. I cannot learn that any of them can be found due north of this county. They can be traced south and south-west to the Floridas, (p. 290.) A wall from four to seven feet
high extends seven miles from the Great to the Little Scioto river.
The great increase of population in the state of Ohio has been partly owing to the emigration from the neighbouring states, and from Europe, * settlers having been tempted by the fertility of the soil, the low price of lands, and security of purchase, the high price of labour, and prohibition of slavery. The means of comfortable subsistence are within the reach of all; and marriage is generally contracted at an early age.
State of Society.—The people of the Miami country, who resemble those of other parts of the state, are described by Dr Drake as "generally industrious, frugal, temperate, patriotic, and religious, with as much intelligence, and more enterprise, than the families from which they were detached. Wealth is pretty equally distributed. The constant influx of young men emigrating from other countries leads to early marriage. There is no predominant amusement amongst them. Cards are chiefly confined to the vulgar grog shop, or the nocturnal gaming-room. Dancing is not unfrequent among the wealthier classes, but is never carried to excess. The current amusements are evening walks, social converse, singing, or
* Of the population of Cincinnati Dr Drake observes, " that there is no state in the Union which has not enriched it with some of its most enterprising or restless citizens; nor a kingdom of the west of Europe whose adventurous exiles are not commingled with us. To Kentucky and the states north of Virginia—to England, Iieland, Germany, Scotland, France, and Holland, we are most indebted."
sometimes airing on horseback, or in a carriage." It is remarked by Dr Forsyth, that the practice of drinking ardent spirits to excess is very common, owing to the low price of whisky and peach brandy; so that, while we are getting rid in some measure of the diseases consequent on a new settlement, another more formidable evil is generating its baneful effects among us. Many heads of families have a practice, in the morning, of bringing out the brandy bottle, and treating each other to a morning dram.
Diseases.—Dr Drake, from whom we derive our information on this subject, observes, " that the diseases of this state are common in the same latitudes east of the Alleghany mountains, but that some are less violent and frequent; that pulmonary consumption, which, in some of the towns of the Atlantic states, destroys from a fourth to a sixth of the persons who die annually, in the town of Cincinnati does not occasion one twentieth of the deaths. In the winter season there are cases of pleurisy and peripneumony, which, often united with bilious affections, become of difficult cure without the aid of mercury. The croup often prevails, and carries off yearly a number of children. It is frequently attended with bilious symptoms, and in the months of June and July is sometimes connected with cholera'infantium, a disease more fatal to children than any other to which they are subject. Rheumatism is not so frequent nor so formidable as in the northern states. Colds, catarrhs, swelled tonsils, and other affections of the throat, occur here as in the maritime parts, but do not appear to be so often followed by consumption. The toothach, jaw-ach, and premature decay of teeth, are not so frequent as in some districts of New England; according to Dr Hazletine, they form an eighth part of all the diseases incident to the province of Maine. In autumn remitting and intermitting fevers prevail along the water courses. The dysentery sometimes becomes epidemic, but is seldom mortal. Inflammation of the liver is not more common than in the same latitudes of the maritime states. In country places the jaundice'is a common disease, but is seldom fatal. Goitre,* scrofula, rickets, scurvy, locked-jaw, and apoplexy, are rare, as are also the gout, calculus, and palsy. Ophthalmia sometimes becomes epidemic. A disease called the sick stomach has prevailed for several years on the head waters of the Great Miami, and in some of the adjoining parts in Kentucky, of which the chief symptoms are great debility, lassitude, and soreness of the extremities, and a vomiting on taking exercise. This disease, which is ascribed to some marsh exhalations, continues sometimes for several months, attacks whole families, and affects even domestic animals, horses, cows, sheep, and dogs. The most frequent diseases in the Miami country are the measles and hooping-cough; but they seldom terminate fatally. The greatest mortality among adults is in August, September, and October, except when epidemics prevail in another season.