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as high as Loramie's creek, 130 miles from its mouth; and, in the common state of the waters, to the town of Dayton. In low water the navigation is rendered difficult by the formation of numerous sand bars, and also by islands, of which there are no less than twenty near the village of Troy. In spring and autumn some parts of its banks are liable to be overflowed, and the current is then rapid. One of its branches on the west, called Loramie's creek, which falls in 130 miles from its mouth, is navigable for batteaux nearly thirty miles. This branch takes its rise near St Mary's ri. ver. Mad river, an eastern branch, is obstructed by rapids, but it affords fine situations for mill machinery. The descent, in a short distance, is said to be 200 feet. The navigable waters of the eastern branches of the Great Miami reach within nine miles of Sandusky river, which empties itself into the bay of the same name ; and those of the western branch of this river extend within five miles of the Miami of the lakes, another navigable river, which runs across the northwestern parts of the state into Miami bay of Lake Erie. The Little Miami rises below the eastern branches of Mad river, and west of that of Paint creek, a branch of the Scioto, and meanders through an extensive valley, pursuing nearly the same course as the Great Miami, at the distance of about twenty miles therefrom, and joins the Ohio seven miles above Cincinnati, where, in high water, it is 150 yards wide. Many parts of its banks are annually overflowed, and its navigation is not of much importance; but it af. fords fine situations for mills. About 100 miles from

its mouth, in the county of Green, the navigation is entirely obstructed by a ledge of rocks. It has two considerable branches, which extend in an eastern direction, called Eastern and Todd's Fork. The Scioto river rises near 40° 30' of latitude, not far from the Round heads Indian towns, and traversing Great Prairie, runs in an eastern direction to below the Sandusky plains ; from which it runs south, through the middle of the state, watering some of the most fertile lands, and joins the Ohio in north latitude 38° 34'. It is navigable for large boats nearly 200 miles from its mouth ; and, as it extends within three of Sandusky river, it affords another direct communication with Lake Erie. It has three considerable western branches, Paint, Deer, and Darby's creeks; and on the east, Big Belly and Whetstone creek. The Muskingum river, another branch of the Ohio, which runs through the state in a direction from north to south, is navigable for boats 140 miles; and when the waters are high, skiffs can ascend within a mile of the Cayaboga river, which also empties itself into the above-mentioned lake. Its outlet is 250 yards in width. It has numerous branches, which water an extensive surface between 40° and 41° of latitude. On the west, Licking creek, White Woman's creek, which divides into several branches-Owl creek, &c. The eastern branch, or Tuscarawa creek, is a considerable stream. The Great Hockhocking, which runs between the Scioto and the Muskingum, in a south-east, ern direction, joins the Ohio 150 miles above the for

mer, and is navigable for boats from its mouth to the falls, * a distance of about seventy miles. On the east a number of small streams fall into the Ohio-Big Beaver and Little Beaver creek; and others, known by the name of Yellow, Cross, Short, Indian, Wheeling, MacMahon's Capitina, and Sun-fish creeks. The Little Muskingum is a small stream, which falls into the Ohio a little to the east of the Great Muskingum. The Racoon creek, which falls in between Hockhocking and the Scioto river, Rush creek, White Oak creek, and Eagle creek, run into the Ohio in a southern direction, between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami. The Little Scioto river is a small stream, which falls in eastward of the Great Scioto. These different streams afford the most eligible situations for mills, and manufacturing establishments, and easy channels of transportation for the home and foreign commerce of this country. Springs are numerous, and good wa. ter for domestic use is generally found at the depth of from twenty to thirty feet. · Temperature. The climate is generally very mild. The heat of summer is not greater than in the state of Vermont ; and the winter is very moderate, though subject to sudden changes and frequent rains. Spring opens about the middle of March, with a genial warmth, which remains nearly uniform till the middle of May, when the warm season commences, and con. tinues till the middle of September, after which period the atmosphere assumes a hazy appearance, with dry

* These falls are five feet in height.



and serene weather, known, by the name of Indian summer. The mean annual temperature, deduced from observations made during eight years, at or near Cincinnati, commencing in 1806, and terminating in 1813, was found to be 541° of Fahrenheit, which corresponds with that of deep wells and perennial springs. The mean annual range, during the same period, was 100°. The average heat of each month was as follows:

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The mean term of the greatest diurnal variation from cold to heat is 29° 32', and from heat to cold, 28° 57'.

The mean annual difference between the coldest and warmest parts of the day, at Cincinnati, was 15%.

The greatest cold ever known was on the 8th of Ja. nuary 1797, when the Mercury fell 18° below 0. In that year the Ohio was frozen during four weeks, and there was frost as late as the 22d of May. The greatest heat is 98°. The mercury rises to 90°, or upwards, during fourteen days of summer. The southwest wind prevails nine months in the year; from March to November inclusively. The wind is gene. rally from the north-west in December, January, and February. The greatest quantity of rain falls in April and May, and the annual quantity in the southern

parts of the Miami country is about thirty-six inches. The greatest depth of snow seldom exceeds four inches, and is of short duration ; but in the more northern parts, and near the waters of Lake Erie, between 40° and 41° degrees of latitude, it is deeper and of longer duration. Near the Scioto river, in latitude 40° 40' the snow was twenty inches deep on the 4th of January 1819, while at Cincinnati it was only four. Frost seldom appears in the valley of the Ohio before the 1st of October. On the 14th of February 1817, the Ohio, near Maruetta, was frozen to the depth of nineteen inches. The parroquet frequents this country as high as the parallel of 39%, and the soft-shelled turtle is found in the waters of the Ohio, although it is not seen in any of the Atlantic States to the north of Georgia. The catalpa grows on the Wabash, in the latitude of the Miami country; the reed or cane as far east as the Big Sandy river at Cincinnati. Vegetation commences in the first week of March ; the peach tree is in blossom the first week of April. Cherries, raspberries, and strawberries, are ripe in the first days of June, and peaches about the first of August. * At Cincinnati the cold is considered as very great, if the ground exposed to the sun's rays remains frozen during a month. The frost does not penetrate to the depth of more than five or six inches. The vernal frosts disappear in the beginning of May. Those of autumn generally commence about the end of September. Dr Forsyth re.


See Drake's Picture of Cincinnati, Section IV.

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