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and the branches of the Ohio. The Miami river is 105 miles in length, and is boatable from its outlet to near its sources in all seasons. The St Joseph is navigable about fifty miles. The St Mary's, in wet seasons, 150 miles from its confluence to old Fort St Mary's. At the distance of twenty miles east of the junction of the Miami is Toussaint river, which may be considered as an arm of the lake, from which its source is but ten or twelve miles distant. It has an outlet of 100 yards; but the channel is full of wild rice, pond lilies, and other aquatic plants. Portage or Carrying river rises from two sources, in a marshy surface, called the Black Swamp. It is navigable from near its source to its outlet, from which, to the distance of six or seven miles, it is 140 yards wide. The Sandusky river is a considerable stream, which takes a north-easterly course, and falls into the bay of the same name, two miles east of the mouth of Carrying river in a direct line, but fortyseven by the coast of the peninsula, formed by Portage river, Sandusky bay, and Lake Erie. A few miles east of this river, two streams fall into the bay, called Pipe and Cold creeks, which traverse a fine country, and afford several eligible situations for mills. Huron river, which falls into the lake eleven miles east of Sandusky bay, is fifty yards wide at its mouth, from which it is navigable eighteen miles. It has several branches, which water a fertile country. The Vermillion river is nearly of the same dimensions, and falls in ten miles farther east; and at the distance of twelve miles eastward is the outlet of Black river, resembling cultivation. From the Muskingum river to the great Miami on the west, the country is broken, but the hills gradually diminish in elevation ; and some approach the river Ohio, while others sink at the distance of two or three miles. In the north-western and northern parts the surface is more level, the soil moister, but crossed by tracts of dry meadow and forests, with a : sandy or gravelly soil. In the north-west corner the soil is rich, but moist and unhealthy * to the distance of eight or ten miles from the outlet of the rivers ; but, above this, the country is very healthy. Between Huron river and the Miami of the lakes there are extensive forests and prairies intersected with tracts of wood land.

Lakes. There are no lakes of any considerable size in this state except lake Erie, which forms the northern boundary for nearly 200 miles. This lake is navigated by vessels carrying about 100 tons. · Streams which run into Lake Erie, watering the Northern Portion of the State.-The largest and most westerly is the Miami of the Lake, which rises in the state of Indiana, where its two branches, known by the name of St Mary's and Little St Joseph's, run in opposite directions to their junction ; and from this point their united waters take a north-eastern course to Lake Erie. Its southern branch, called the Laglaise river, is a considerable stream, which takes its rise ten or twelve miles north-east of the source of the St Mary's. It is proposed to run a canal between the sources of the Loramie, St Mary's, and the Laglaise,

* Western Gazetteer, p. 274.

and the branches of the Ohio. The Miami river is 105 miles in length, and is boatable from its outlet to near its sources in all seasons. The St Joseph is navigable about fifty miles. The St Mary's, in wet seasons, 150 miles from its confluence to old Fort St Mary's. At the distance of twenty miles east of the junction of the Miami is Toussaint river, which may be considered as an arm of the lake, from which its source is but ten or twelve miles distant. It has an outlet of 100 yards; but the channel is full of wild rice, pond lilies, and other aquatic plants. Portage or Carrying river rises from two sources, in a marshy surface, called the Black Swamp. It is navigable from near its source to its outlet, from which, to the distance of six or seven miles, it is 140 yards wide. The Sandusky river is a considerable stream, which takes a north-easterly course, and falls into the bay of the same name, two miles east of the mouth of Carrying river in a direct line, but fortyseven by the coast of the peninsula, formed by Portage river, Sandusky bay, and Lake Erie. A few miles east of this river, two streams fall into the bay, called Pipe and Cold creeks, which traverse a fine country, and afford several eligible situations for mils. Huron river, which falls into the lake eleven miles east of Sandusky bay, is fifty yards wide at its mouth, from which it is navigable eighteen miles. It has several branches, which water a fertile country. The Vermillion river is nearly of the same dimensions, and falls in ten miles farther east; and at the distance of twelve miles eastward is the outlet of Black river, resembling

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the former. Rock river, which rises near a branch of the Muskingum, is longer than either, and more rapid; it discharges its waters at the distance of eighteen miles from the former. It is navigable to the distance of twenty-five miles from its outlet, but the current of its waters is impeded by sand bars, and sometimes by the north-west winds of the lake, which raise its waters above its banks, and render its borders unhealthy. The next is the Cayahoga, which takes its rise near the parallel of 41° 35', and running in a south-westerly course to the latitude of 41° ;', then takes a northwesterly direction to Lake Erie, which it joins in 41° 31', according to the excellent map of Hough and Bourne. This river could easily be rendered navigable to the distance of fifty miles from its mouth, and within seven or eight of the Tuscarawa. For this purpose a lottery was authorized by the legislature of the state, but failed; the new settlers at Cleaveland, near its mouth, being discouraged by the want of a harbour, and the bilious fever which prevailed in autumn.

A branch near its southern bend, which issues from a small lake, approaches quite near the source of the Tuscarawa creek, or great southern branch of the Muskingum river, which falls into the Ohio. This river, like the former, has its current impeded by sand bars, and by the influence of the north-west wind, which is the cause of the fevers that prevail near its borders. It has several small branches, the largest of which is Tinker's creek, coming from the east. Chagrin river takes its rise within the great bend of the Cayahoga, and runs a northern course of forty miles to Lake Erie, which

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it enters twenty miles east of the former. It is a rapid stream, and frequently overflows its banks. Grand river takes its rise near the great bend of Big Beaver creek of the Ohio, and runs a northern course to 41° 45', where it takes a western direction to the lake. It is not navigable. The Ashtabula creek falls in twentysix miles east of the former. The last stream, which enters ten miles farther east, is the Connought creek. This, like the former, affords many mill seats, but is not navigable.

Streams which run into the Ohio, watering the Southern Portion of the State. The Ohio river bounds the eastern and southern parts of this state for the space of 420 miles, * and affords an easy and safe navigation for vessels of large size from Pittsburgh to its junction with the Mississippi, during the high water of spring and autumn. At this period it is navigated by ships of 300 tons burden. The current then runs at the rate of three miles and a half an hour, but in other seasons its velocity is nearly.one third less. The tributary streams of this river, which water the state of Ohio, are the Great and Little Miami, Scioto, Muskingum, Hockhocking, and Big Beaver rivers. The Great Miami rises near 40° 30' of north latitude, and runs in a south-westerly course through a deep valley to its junction with the Ohio. In the south-western angle of the state, its width, to the distance of forty miles from its mouth, is about 130 yards. In high floods it is navigable with keel and flat bottomed boats

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The Western Gazetteer says 509.

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