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Keith's (Sir William) History from the earliest period to the year 1725.

To these are added a list of the Pamphlets, four in number, on the question of Independence; and a Chronological Catalogue of State Papers from the year 1496 to I768.

1706". Tucker's (George) Dissertation on Slavery, with a Proposal for the gradual abolition of it in the State of Virginia. Philadelphia, in 8vo. pp. 106.

1802. Baltzell's (Dr John) Essay on the Mineral Properties of the Sweet Springs of Virginia, pp. 30, in 8vo. Baltimore.

1810. Marshall's (Judge) Life of Washington. 5 vols, in 8vo.

1810. A Tour through parts of Virginia in the Summer of 1808, &c. edited by JohnCaldwell of New York, in 12mo. pp. 63. Belfast, Ireland.

1810. Campbell's (J. W.) History of Virginia, in 8vo.

Burke's History of Virginia, 1 vol. in 8vo.

1815. Valentine's (Louis) Sur les Maladies les plus communes en Virginie, et Principalement sur les fluxions de poitrine. Troisieme partiede son Memoire sur les Fluxions de Poitrine. Nancy.

Skelton Jones proposes to complete Burke's History of Virginia, which was left unfinished by the author.

Maps In the year 16*12, a Map of Virginia, with a Description of the Country, by W. S. in 4to. Oxford.

In 1807, a Map of this State in six sheets, formed from actual Surveys, and the latest and most accurate Observations, by James Madison, D.D. President of William and Mary's College. In 1816, the Legislature of the State voted an adequate sum for a more correct and improved Map, and a Chart of each County.

CHAPTER XIX.

OHIO.

Situation And Boundaries.—This state is situated between 38° S0' and 42° north latitude, and 3° 32' and 7° 43' west longitude. It is bounded on the south by the Ohio river, north by Lake Erie, and the Michigan territory, east by Pennsylvania, and west by Indiana. Its extreme length from north to south is 228 miles, and its breadth about 200. Area, according to Mr Drake, about 40,000 square miles, or 25,000,000 acres.

Aspect of the Country and Nature of the Soil.—The most elevated part of this state is a chain of hills extending along the 41st degree of latitude, from which the waters flow in opposite directions, northwards to Lake Erie, and southwards to the river Ohio. * The ridges from which the waters flow in different directions, run generally parallel to the Alleghany mountains. The hills in some places cross the streams, and in others take the same direction, t The south-eastern parts

* The mean elevation of the country situated between Lake Erie and the Cumberland Mountains in the meridian of Cincinnati, has been estimated at 350 feet. See Drake's Picture of Cincinnati, p. 63.

+ Forsyth's Topography of Ohio, inserted in the Medical Repository of New York for 180?.

are hilly; but all the rest of the country, except near the Ohio, and some of its larger streams, is generally level, or gently undulating. Towards the south there are woodless plains of considerable extent, covered with fine herbage. |In some places the waters, not finding a channel, have formed ponds and marshes; but, upon the whole, this state has perhaps more land in proportion to its extent, capable of cultivation, than any of the others. The elevated grounds have a surface of easy ascent, and susceptible of tillage to the very summit. It is remarked, that the northern side of the hills have the richer soil, which is supposed to be owing to the constant deposition of leaves carried thither by the southerly winds. * The hills in the southern parts of the state consist of a weak yellow clay, with a thin covering of vegetable mould. They are better adapted for grass than tillage; but in some places where clay is over limestone, the soil is very fertile. The river bottoms, which are remarkably rich, consist of a cool sand, sufficiently, but not too dry, easy of tillage, and, as far as is yet experienced, inexhaustibly fertile. This bottom land, of which there are extensive tracts, is agreeably varied in surface, rising into hills occasionally, and never flat, t The eastern portion of the state between the Muskingum river and the Pennsylvania line, to the distance of fifty miles north, is uneven, rising into high hills, between which are deep vallies, but the whole surface is rich and capable of

* Forsyth's Topography of Ohio, inserted in the Medical Repository of New York for 1809, p. 353. + Birkbeck's Notes, p. 64 and 69.

cultivation. From the Muskingum river to the great Miami on the west, the country is broken, but the hills gradually diminish in elevation; and some approach the river Ohio, while others sink at the distance of two or three miles. In the north-western and northern parts the surface is more level, the soil moister, but crossed by tracts of dry meadow and forests, with a sandy or gravelly soil. In the north-west corner the soil is rich, but moist and unhealthy * to the distance of eight or ten miles from the outlet of the rivers; but, above this, the country is very healthy. Between Huron river and the Miami of the lakes there are extensive forests and prairies intersected with tracts of wood land.

Lakes.—There are no lakes of any considerable size in this state except lake Erie, which forms the northern boundary for nearly 200 miles. This lake is navigated by vessels carrying about 100 tons. Streams 'which run into Lake Erie, watering the Northern Portion of the State.—The largest and most westerly is the Miami of the Lake, which rises in the state of Indiana, where its two branches, known by the name of St Mary's and Little St Joseph's, run in opposite directions to their junction; and from this point their united waters take a north-eastern course to Lake Erie. Its southern branch, called the Laglaise river, is a considerable stream, which takes its rise ten or twelve miles north-east of the source of the St Mary's. It is proposed to run a canal between the sources of the Loramie, St Mary's, and the Laglaise,

* Western Gazetteer, p. 274.

and the branches of the Ohio. The Miami river is 105 miles in length, and is boatable from its outlet to near its sources in all seasons. The St Joseph is navigable about fifty miles. The St Mary's, in wet seasons, 150 miles from its confluence to old Fort St Mary's. At the distance of twenty miles east of the junction of the Miami is Toussaint river, which may be considered as an arm of the lake, from which its source is but ten or twelve miles distant. It has an outlet of 100 yards; but the channel is full of wild rice, pond lilies, and other aquatic plants. Portage or Carrying river rises from two sources, in a marshy surface, called the Black Swamp. It is navigable from near its source to its outlet, from which, to the distance of six or seven miles, it is 140 yards wide. The Sandusky river is a considerable stream, which takes a north-easterly course, and falls into the bay of the same name, two miles east of the mouth of Carrying river in a direct line, but fortyseven by the coast of the peninsula, formed by Portage river, Sandusky bay, and Lake Erie. A few miles east of this river, two streams fall into the bay, called Pipe and Cold creeks, which traverse a fine country, and afford several eligible situations for mills. Huron river, which falls into the lake eleven miles east of Sandusky bay, is fifty yards wide at its mouth, from which it is navigable eighteen miles. It has several branches, which water a fertile country. The Vermillion river is nearly of the same dimensions, and falls in ten miles farther east; and at the distance of twelve miles eastward is the outlet of Black river, resembling

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