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Military Force.—Every able bodied freeman, from eighteen to forty-five years of age, is enrolled in the militia, * receives his arms from the state armoury, and performs duty eight days in the year. In the counties, they are distributed into regiments and battalions, brigades and divisions. The officers are appointed by the joint ballot of both houses of the general assembly, consisting of an adjutant-general, a major-general for each division, a brigadier-general to each brigade, residing within the limits of their respective command. In case of invasion or insurrection, the militia may be called forth, and ordered out by the commanding officer in a county; and during service, it is governed by the articles of war of the United States. The adjutant-general has a salary of 400 dollars a-year; the brigade inspector, 150. Rifles are generally used on the western side of the mountains. The militia, in 1815, according to the official return laid before congress, amounted to 83,847.
Forts.—Fort-Neilson, opposite Norfolk, is garrisoned by a company; Fort Norfolk, lower down, on Elizabeth river, with nearly the same force, and from twenty-five to thirty cannon. A battery at Crany Island, three miles below Norfolk. A battery at Hood's, on James river, below City Point.
Religion.—Before the revolution, ecclesiastical affairs were under the inspection of a commissary, authorized by the Bishop of London. The revenue of
• Except the chief officers of state, ministers, teachers, student?, and also Quakers, and Menonists.
the minister was fixed at 16,000 lbs. of tobacco, besides fees and presents arising from marriages, interments, and funeral discourses. * All acts of Parliament, concerning religious worship and belief, were repealed by the convention of 177f>' The laws which secured the payment of regular salaries to clergymen were afterwards abolished; they are now supported, as in other states, by voluntary contributions. The different Christian denominations are, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Baptists, and Methodists. The first, who occupy the western parts, are the most numerous. The number of regular ministers is about sixty. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, the number of their churches was 314; that of members, 11,838; and the members of 142 churches were not reported.
Education.—Colleges.—The college of William and Mary, established at Williamsburg by voluntary subscription, and placed under the direction of James Blair, t a Scotch clergyman, was endowed, in 1692, by the king and queen, whose name it bears. It has five professorships, viz. of, 1. Law and Police. 2. Anatomy and Medicine. 3. Natural Philosophy and Mathematics. 4. Moral Philosophy, the Law of Na
* As the tobacco was then about ten shillings the quintal, this amounted to nearly eighty pounds sterling. The price of a funeral discourse was 400 lbs. of tobacco, or forty shillings; a marriage, 50 lbs. or five shillings.
f The first president, who continued in that situation nearly fifty years.
ture and Nations, and the Fine Arts. 5. Modern Languages.
Twenty thousand acres of land were granted for the support of this college, by its founders, with ^000 pounds in money, and a duty of one penny per pound in tobacco, skins, and furs, amounting in all to nearly 3000 pounds a-year. * A large donation was also made by the honourable Mr Boyle, for the education of Indian children, but on leaving the seminary, they generally returned to the wild habits of their fathers. The college is under the direction of twenty governors or visitors, who make statutes, or ordinances, and appoint the president and profeseors. The number of students, of late years, has been from fifty to sixty. The whole annual expence, including washing, is about 200 dollars. Few live in the college, The edifice is of brick, and is large enough for the accommodation of 100 students. Hampden and Sydney college, in Prince Edward county, has been lately established* Washington college, or Liberty Hall academy, was endowed by General Washington, with 100 shares in the James river company, estimated at from 6000 to 8000 pounds currency. It has also received donations from other persons. The present building will accommodate sixty students. There is a library and philosophical apparatus. There are academies at Lexington, Alexandria, Norfolk, and Hanover. The Potomac academy at Hampstead, in King George's county. The Rappahanoc academy, the chief master of which
* Jefferson, Query 15.
has 700 dollars a-year. Less attention has been paid to common schools in this than in the other states, owing, partly, to the great inequality of fortune, and the employment of private tutors, but the legislature, in their session of 1815-16, appropriated nearly 1,000,000 of dollars for the support of schools. A school on the Lancasterian plan has been endowed at Richmond, by the common council of that city; 600 dollars have been granted for ground lots, and 5000 for buildings; and since the act was passed, 3500 dollars have been subscribed by the citizens.
The police is under the direction of the magistrates. Paupers, who are unable to work, and without the means of support, are boarded in farmers' houses, who are indemnified by an annual sum, from the proceeds of a parish assessment, levied by twelve vestry-men. Few paupers, however, are seen in the country. Vagabonds are sent to work-houses.
Marriage is solemnized, 1. By a special licence from the first magistrate of the county, which, if the person is under age, is not granted without the consent of the parent or guardian. 2. By publication three Sundays in succession, at some religious place of worship in the parish where the parties reside. 3. By a minister licensed for this purpose by the court of the county. Quakers and Menonists are not subject to these rules.
Naturalization.—Any foreigner, who is not from the country of an enemy, may acquire naturalization, by a declaration of intended residence, and an oath of fidelity; he is furnished with a certificate to this ef feet, under the seal of the state. In the early periods of this colony, all who wished to be naturalized, had only to swear allegiance before the governor, who gave a certificate of the fact under the public seal. Artizans and mechanics migrating to the state are exempt from all taxes, except the land tax, for the space of five years.
Expatriation is obtained by a declaration before a court, or written act, stating, that the person emigrating divests himself of the political and civil rights belonging to a citizen of the state. All conveyances of land must be registered in the general court, or in the court of the county in which they are situated, otherwise they are void as to creditors or subsequent purchasers.
Slaves were first introduced in the year 1620; the laws regulating their condition, previous to 1662, are lost, but, in the last mentioned year, we find a law declaring that all children born in the country should be bond or free, according to the condition of the mother. In 1667, it was enacted that this condition was not altered by the rite of baptism; and afterwards, in 1669, that the death of a slave, occasioned by the correction of a master, or resisting his orders, should not be accounted felony. * Slaves, like lands, pass by descent and dower. They perform all the labours of agriculture, under the inspection of proprietors or overseers. They are now treated with more humanity than formerly. As a proof of this, it may be mentioned,
* Tucker's Dissertation on Slavery, &c. p. 34.