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Products of Vegetable Substances.

Dollars.

Tobacco, hogsheads, 5100, - value, 204,000

Flax seed oil, gallons, 16,375, - 14,950

Spirits, gallons, 733,042, from fruit and grain;

127,700 from molasses, - 509,660 Beer, 7 breweries, barrels, 9330, - 69,380 Starch and hair powder, pounds, 157,314, 29,000 Paper, reams, 22,200, '- - 77,515

Refined sugar, pounds, 755,879, - 150,000

Snuff, . - 200,000

Uope, tons, 1080, - - - 561,800 Turmeric, pounds, 200, - - 40

Chocolate, pounds, 9000, - - 1800 Wheat, 309 mills, barrels, 328,484, - 2,530,765

Besides 113 saw-mills, 3 wind-mills, 80 grist-mills, in Frederick county; also 2 paper-mills, and 400 stills, chiefly for the distillation of whisky from rye. 2500 hogsheads of tobacco are cured annually. Staves of oak, which are excellent. House furniture of the black walnut, which is elegant and durable.

The three-masted schooners, built at Baltimore, sail faster than any vessels in the world. The Bay of Annapolis is scarcely ever frozen, and, on this account, would be more favourable than Baltimore for shipbuilding, if the vessels were not attacked by a worm, against which no remedy has yet been found.

Product of Animal Substances. Tortoise-shell, J . 28,000 dollars.

Ivory and horn, )

The whole amount of manufactures, in 1810, was 11,468,794 dollars, besides articles of a doubtful na

ture in relation to manufactures, tobacco, flour, and meal, wind-mills, &c. amounting to 2,734,765 dollars.

Commerce. In relation to foreign trade, this state is the fourth in the union. The exports are wheat, flour, corn, tobacco, flax-seeds, beans, pork, and lumber, sent to the West Indies, to England, France, and the north of Europe. The surplus productions of the country round Annapolis are transported to Baltimore and Alexandria. In 1815, 222,000 barrels of flour were exported to foreign places directly, besides 140,000 coast-wise. In I8l6, the quantity exported to foreign places amounted to 187,000 barrels; and to the eastern and southern ports of the United States to 170,000. In 1815, the tobacco sent to foreign ports amounted to 27,000 hogsheads; in 1816 to 12,000. *

The imports are dry goods, hard-ware, wines, and spirituous liquors, rum, sugar, and coffee, from the West Indies; a portion of which is reshipped for Europe, or given in exchange for the productions of the western country, with which there is a more easy and shorter communication than with Philadelphia. It has been stated, that one-half of all the foreign American commerce, during the war, was carried on by Baltimore schooners. In the year 1765, it scarcely gave employment to one old vessel.

The exports from Baltimore, in 1790, amounted to 2,027,777 dollars. In 1805, 10,859,480 dollars, of

* Circular letter of Messrs Stump and Williams, of March 1s17j of which a copy was politely sent to the author.

which 7,450,937 were of foreign produce. The imports amounted to nearly the same value. In 1805, the whole tonnage of this state was 108,010 tons. In 1811, the registered tonnage of Baltimore was 88,398 tons, of the district, 103,144.

Batiks.—In 1813, there were fourteen banks in the state, as follows:

[table]

In March 1817, the chartered banks in Baltimore were nine in number, of which the whole capital amounted to nearly 10,000,000 dollars, * besides the office of discount and deposit, recently established by

• The banks in the city of Baltimore, and that of Hagarstown, were, on the renewal of their charter inlSIS, to subscribe as many shares of stock in the great western road as were required for its completion. Those shares were estimated at 350,000 dollars. This road is to join that of the United States at Cumberland, and to terminate at Baltimore.

the bank of the United States. There is also a private insurance office, and eight chartered marine insurance companies, in the city, the nominal capital of which amounts to about 4,000,000 dollars. *

Canals.—Part of the Delaware and Chesapeak canal is to run in Maryland.

Inventions claimed by Persons in this State.

Boadley, (J. B.) an ice-house, which consists of a frame of logs, of greater or less dimensions, placed above or below the surface, lined within and without with straw, and covered with a roof, with a bason to receive the water from rain or the melted ice.

Books relating to the History and Geography, 8fC. of Maryland.

Laws of Maryland. Bacon's edition, 1(554.

Acts of Visitation at Annapolis in Maryland. Folio, London.

Douglas's Summary, article Maryland. 1755.

Eddis' (William) Letters from America, Historical and Descriptive, comprising occurrences from 1769 to 1777 exclusive. London, published by subscription. 1792.

Boeman's (John Leeds) Sketch of the History of Maryland, 1 vol. in 8vo.

Godon's Observations to serve for the Mineralogical Map of Maryland. No. 50 of the Sixth Volume of the Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia;

Moose, (Thomas) the Great Error of American Agriculture exposed, and Hints for Improvement suggested. Pp. 72. Baltimore.

Maps.

Griffith's (Denis) Map of the State, 3 sheets. Laid down from actual Survey of all the Principal Waters, Public Roads, and Division of the Counties.

* Circular letter of Messrs Stump and Williams, merchants, Baltimore, March 1817.

CHAPTER XVIII.

VIRGINIA. *

.situation And Boundaries.—Virginia is situated between the 36° 8C and 40° 40 north latitude, and between 1° 40' east and 6° west longitude. It is bounded on the north by Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; south by North Carolina and Tennessee; east by Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean; west by Kentucky and Ohio. Its length, from the Atlantic on the east to the Cumberland mountains on the west, is 440 miles. Its greatest breadth, from north to south, is 290. Area, 70,000 square miles.

Aspect of the Country, and Nature of the Soil.— Different ranges of mountains run across this state in a direction nearly parallel with the sea coast, which are known by the name of the Green and South Mountains, the Blue Ridge, t and Alleghany or Apalaches. Between these ridges are rich and fertile vallies. From

* This name was bestowed on it by the virgin Queen Elizabeth, of which title she was ostentatiously fond.

+ The height of the summit of the Alleghany ridge, about six miles west of the sweet springs, according to Colonel Williams's barometrical observution, is 2988 feet above the level of tide water in Virginia. The most elevated point, called the Peaks of Otter, is supposed to be elevated 4000 feet above the level of the sea.

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