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soil; of Indian corn, from twenty to thirty bushels, and the average crop of the former has been estimated at ten bushels; of the latter at fifteen. It is stated, by Dr Morse, “ that an industrious man may cultivate four acres of Indian corn, and rear 6000 plants of tobacco."
On the west river, the produce of wheat is from four to five bushels. On the eastern shore, where many farmers grow from 100 to 200 acres, the average crop was from five to ten bushels per acre, with six cwt. of straw. It is gathered in June, and one man with a scythe cradle will cut three acres per day, for which his wages were a dollar, with food and a pint of whisky. About Baltimore, the average crop of oats is said to be four bushels per acre; of barley, one bushel; of rye, four bushels. Of oats and barley, it is stated, that an English waggon could carry away the produce of ten acres, and that the produce seldom exceeds the quantity of seed, which is about a bushel per acre. Potatoes yielded 100 bushels an acre. Turnips, 360 bushels. Hay, less than half a ton per acre. Mr Smith, who, during the revolutionary war, went largely into farming in this state, * having sown 350 acres in wheat, 50 in buckwheat and oats, 12 in potatoes, 36 in tobacco, and 200 in Indian corn, employed, for all this culture, but fifteen slaves.
Of insects injurious to agriculture, the Hessian fly is the most remarkable. It sometimes destroyed whole
* Smith's Tour in the United States, Vol. II. chap. 57.
fields in a season; but its ravages have been, for some years past, counteracted by late sowing, and constant manuring. Near Annapolis, the grapes, plums, and pears, are often injured by an insect. Value of Lands and Houses.
Dollars. In 1799, the value of lands was
21,634,004 Of houses,
Total, 32,372,290 In 1814, the value of lands, houses, and slaves, was 122,577,572; difference, 90,205,282 dollars. The value of slaves deducted, (at 300 dollars each,) according to their number, in 1810, leaves for the increase of lands and houses, 57,000,000 dollars.
Before the American revolution, there was, in the whole state, but one manufactory, and that of woollen, which was established in the county of Somerset. Tobacco was their only article of trade. The planters now prepare their own clothing; and a great number of manufactures have been lately established on a large scale in the northern counties. The capital of the Union manufacturing company of Maryland is 1,000,000 dollars, divided into 20,000 shares of 50 dollars each. Products of Mineral Substances in 1810.
Dollars. Two iron works in Frederick county,
value, Glass, 2 glass-works, square feet, 540,000, bottles, 7000,
- 72,660 Gunpowder, pounds, 323,447,
164,122 Salt, bushels, 7538,
10,000 Millstones, 1 manufactory,
1,000 Potters' ware,
360 VOL. II.
Products of Vegetable Substances.
Dollars. Tobacco, hogsheads, 5100,
value, 204,000 Flax-seed oil, gallons, 16,375,
14,950 Spirits, gallons, 733,042, from fruit and grain ; 127,700 from molasses,
509,660 Beer, 7 breweries, barrels, 9330,
69,380 Starch and hair powder, pounds, 157,314,
29,000 Paper, reams, 22,200, ..
77,515 Refined sugar, pounds, 755,879,
200,000 Rope, tons, 1080,
561,800 Turmeric, pounds, 200, Chocolate, pounds, 9000,
1800 Wheat, 309 mills, barrels, 328,484, . - 2,530,765 Besides 113 saw-mills, 3 wind-mills, 80 grist-mills, in Frederick county; also 2 paper-mills, and 430 stills, chiefly for the distillation of whisky from rye. 2500 hogsheads of tobacco are cured annually. Staves of oak, which are excellent. House furniture of the black walnut, which is elegant and durable. · The three-masted schooners, built at Baltimore, sail
faster than any vessels in the world. The Bay of Annapolis is scarcely ever frozen, and, on this account, would be more favourable than Baltimore for ship.. building, if the vessels were not attacked by a worm, against which no remedy has yet been found.
Product of Animal Substances. Tortoise-shell, 1 value, . 28,000 dollars. Ivory and horn,
The whole amount of manufactures, in 1810, was 11,468,794 dollars, besides articles of a doubtful nature in relation to manufactures, tobacco, flour, and meal, wind-mills, &c. amounting to 2,734,765 dollars.
Commerce. -- In relation to foreign trade, this state is the fourth in the union. The exports are wheat, four, corn, tobacco, flax-seeds, beans, pork, and lum. ber, sent to the West Indies, to England, France, and the north of Europe. The surplus productions of the country round Annapolis are transported to Baltimore and Alexandria. In 1815, 222,000 barrels of Aour were exported to foreign places directly, besides 140,000 coast-wise. In 1816, the quantity exported to foreign places amounted to 187,000 barrels; and to the eastern and southern ports of the United States to 170,000. In 1815, the tobacco sent to foreign ports amounted to 27,000 hogsheads; in 1816 to 12,000. *
The imports are dry goods, hard-ware, wines, and spirituous liquors, rum, sugar, and coffee, from the West Indies ; a portion of which is reshipped for Europe, or given in exchange for the productions of the western country, with which there is a more easy and shorter communication than with Philadelphia. It has been stated, that one-half of all the foreign American commerce, during the war, was carried on by Baltimore schooners. In the year 1765, it scarcely gave employment to one old vessel.
The exports from Baltimore, in 1790, amounted to 2,027,777 dollars. In 1805, 10,859,480 dollars, of
* Circular letter of Messrs Stump and Williams, of March 1817, of which a copy was politely sent to the a'thor.
which 7,450,937 were of foreign produce. The imports amounted to nearly the same value. In 1805, the whole tonnage of this state was 108,010 tons. In 1811, the registered tonnage of Baltimore was 88,398 tons, of the district, 103,444.
Banks.- In 1813, there were fourteen banks in the state, as follows: Instituted.
Dollars. In 1790. Bank of Maryland,
300,000 - 1795. Bank of Baltimore,
1,200,000 - 1804. Union Bank of Maryland,
3,000,000 - 1804. Farmers' Bank of Maryland,
1,200,000 - 1806. Mechanics,
1,000,000 - 1810. Commercial and Farmers',
1,000,000 1810. Farmers' and Merchants',
500,000 - 1810. Franklin,
600,000 - 1810. Marine,
600.000 - 1810. Hagarstown,
250,000 - 1811. Elkton,
300,000 Farmers' Bank of Worcester and Pomerset, 200,000 - 1812. Cumberland,
200,000 – 1813. City Bank,
11,350,000 In March 1817, the chartered banks in Baltimore were nine in number, of which the whole capital amounted to nearly 10,000,000 dollars, * besides the office of discount and deposit, recently established by
* The banks in the city of Baltimore, and that of Hagarstown, were, on the renewal of their charter in 1813, to subscribe as many shares of stock in the great western road as were required for its completion. Those shares were estimated at 350,000 dollars. This road is to join that of the United States at Cumberland, and to terminate at Baltimore.