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one. This state, which so strenuously resisted the encroachments of parliament in 1769, and so actively promoted the revolution in 1775, was the last to sign the articles of confederation in 1781 ; and the federal constitution met with strong opposition from some of the ablest members of the convention, but was finally adopted in April 1788, by a majority of fifty-one. Besides other objections to the articles of confedera. tion, it was maintained, that the immense tract of unappropriated western territory, of which this state owned no portion, ought to be considered as the common property of the union, not of particular states, and should be reserved as a fund for the redemption of the national debt. In the defence of Baltimore during the late war, the militia manifested great firmness, and the people have since evinced their patriotism by raising 100,000 dollars towards the erection of two monu. ments, the one to the memory of General Washing. ton, the other in honour of those who fell in defence of the city, at North Point, on the 12th of September 1814. The first is also to serve as a land-mark for vessels coming up the Patapsco. The expence has been estimated at half a million of dollars ; that of the other at fifty thousand.
This province formed a part of Virginia until the year 1632, when it was detached from it at the solicitation of George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, who, after several years' residence in the province of Newfoundland, obtained a grant of this province as an asylum for the persecuted Catholics of his native country; but, as he died before the delivery of the charter, it was vestVOL. II.
ed in his eldest son, who followed up the same enterprise. The first colony, consisting of 200 Roman Ca. tholics from England, arrived in the summer of 1634. They established themselves at St Mary's, then the capital, where their numbers were increased by emigrants from New England, and nonconformists, dri. ven from Virginia by Berkeley the governor. The form of government was modelled after that of England. The council, which resembled the House of Peers, was composed of some of the more distinguished members of the society, and the Lower Chamber of Deputies of the counties. The right of convoking, proroguing, or dissolving the parliament, was in the lord-proprietor, who had a negative upon its proceedings. At the death of Charles I. Lord Baltimore lost his rights, but was re-established in them by Charles II. Under William III. he was allowed to enjoy the revenues of his property, but not to continue as governor. An act of parliament passed in this reign, disabled Catholics from holding lands either by descent or purchase.
The friendly disposition of the Indians, which favoured the growth of this colony for some time, was afterwards interrupted by the conduct of Captain Wil. liam Claiborne, who stirred them up against the colonists, and, in 1635, went so far as to attack their vessels, though without success. The colonists were also annoyed by the jealousy of the Virginians; but these troubles were at length composed, and the colony increased in numbers under the protecting influence of its own legislature. Lands were purchased in the in.
terior of the country, on conditions which are worthy of notice. The first adventurers had 2000 acres, sub. ject to the yearly rent of 400 pounds of good wheat, for every five men between the age of sixteen and fif. ty, whom they imported for the purpose of planting or inhabiting the country; for less than five men 1000 acres were allowed; the same quantity for the wife of a settler and for his servant; and fifty for every child under sixteen years of age, subject to a rent of ten pounds of wheat yearly for every fifty acres. These proportions were altered by a subsequent regulation in 1635. Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Ma
ryland, with the Population of each County and Chief Town, in 1810, the Year of the late Enumeration. Counties.
Population. Chief Towns. Alleghany,
Cumberland. Anne Arundel, .. 26,668 Annapolis, 2,000 Baltimore, - 29,255 Ditto City,
35,583) East precincts of ditto, 4,050 Baltimore, 46,555 West ditto,
6,922). Cecil, - - 13,066 Elkton. Calvert,
8,005 St Leonard's. Caroline,
9,458 Denton, Charles,
20,245 Port Tobacco.
* The growth of Baltimore has been rapid beyond example, even in the United Stales. In March 1817, the population was 55,000. The number of vessels entered at the custom-house from foreign ports, during the year 1817, was 632, and the number of coasting vessels 758. During the same year 422 cleared for foreign posts, and 893 for.ports within the United States.
Constitution.- According to the form of government, established at Annapolis in 1776, (14th August,) the general assembly is composed of two legislative bodies, a senate and house of delegates. Senators are chosen by electors, (who themselves are elected viva voce by the freemen, the first Monday in September,) of whom there are two in each county, besides one for the city of Annapolis, and another for the city of Baltimore. By the 5th article of the amend. ment to the constitution, confirmed in 1802, every free white male citizen, above twenty-one years of age, having resided twelve months in the county or city next preceding the election at which he offers to vote, has the right of suffrage for delegates to the general assembly, electors to the senate, and sheriffs. These electors assemble at Annapolis, a fortnight after they are chosen, and elect, by ballot, fifteen senators out of their own body, or from the mass of citizens; nine from the western, and six from the eastern shore, for the term of five years, with the following qualifications: 1. To be twenty-five years of age. 2. To possess real and personal property to the value of more than 1000 pounds. 3. To have resided in the state more than three years immediately preceding the election. The electors take an oath, “ that they will elect, without favour, affection, partiality, or prejudice, such persons, for senators, as they, in their judgment and conscience, believe best qualified for the office.” The members of the house of delegates are chosen annually by the people, on the first Monday in October, four in each county, and two from each of the cities, without regard to population. The qualifications are: 1. To be twenty-one years of age. 2. To possess real or personal property above the value of 500 pounds. 3. To have resided, during a year, in the county or city for which he is chosen. The executive power is lodged in a governor and council, consisting of five members, who are elected annually by the joint ballot of the general assembly, on the second Monday in November. The governor must be twenty-five years of age; a resident in the state five years next preceding the election, and possessed of real or personal estate above the value of 5000 pounds current money, of which 1000 at least must be freehold estate. He cannot continue in office more than three years successively; nor be re-elected until the expiration of four years; nor hold any other office of profit during the time for which he serves. The council is composed of “able and discreet men,” twenty-five years of age, residents in the state three years next preceding the