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108 UNITED STATES.eries, lead factories, and rope-walks. In Philadelphia there are several iron and brass founderies; manufactories of steam-engines, of lead, copper, &c. to a great amount. A great many vessels are built of pine at the port of Philadelphia, and on the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers. The iron manufacturing establishment in Lancaster county, belonging to Robert Coleman, Esq. is one of the most extensive and productive in the United States. There are others near Carlisle, at Fort London, and in Sherman's Valley; at Shippemburgh, in Cumberland, Hanover in York, and Mercesburg, in Franklin. Gypsum, brought by the Susquehannah from the Western county, 4 dollars per barrel, or 20 per ton.

A great quantity of cider is made from apples, and of brandy from peaches. This operation takes place in November. Almost every farmer has a press, which generally consists of a wheel made of thick oak plank, turning upon a wooden axis by means of a horse power. Whisky is extracted from maize, rye, and buckwheat, and sugar from the juice of the maple tree, some of which, on the banks of the Monongahela, give four pounds in one season, of as good a quality, but not so strong as the musquevado, and valued at IS cents apound. At Harmony, in 1809, the society of that place made 50 gallons of sweet-oil from the white poppy. The bark of sassafras, boiled in urine, in a vessel of metal, is employed to dye wool of a fine orange colour, which seldom fades. The myrtle wax tree yields a wax which is sometimes employed to make candles. Mixed with an equal quantity of tallow, this substance

renders the candles less subject to melt during the heat of summer, makes them burn more slowly, and give out an agreeable odour when extinguished.

The bark of elder furnishes a red or brown dye, the juice of the poke-weed gives a fine purple ; but no method is yet known of fixing it. A species of convolvulus is used as an esculent; and the seeds of a plant resembling broom are used by the Germans as a substitute for chocolate.

Products of Animal and Vegetable Substances.

Flax, hemp, wool, and cotton, value 4,279,174 dollars. Grain, fruits, &c. - - 15,778,424

Leather, - 3, 155,967

Tanneries, - . 1,607,804

Hats, - - . 1,296,346

Paper, ... 1,227,766

Other manufactures, - . 9,451,941

Brushes, 24 makers, - 94,760

Bookbinding, 102 binders, . 107,185

Tortoise shell, ivory and horn, 6740 doz. 80,624
Suspenders, 2 manufacturers, 2222 doz. 19,049
Upholstery, 9 upholsterers, - 165,000 Merino wool, 1150 free pounds.

Flax-seed oil, 171 mills, gallons 521,375, 518,421
Spirits, 3594 distilleries, gallons 6,552,2843, 986,045
Beer, ale, and porter, 48 breweries, gallons

71,273, per day, - - 376,072

Starch and hair powder, lbs. 358,000, 41,766 Wafers, ... 5,000

Mustard, pounds 25,550, 10,200

Currant wine, barrels 67, - • 3,386
Grape wine, gallons 25.

Cabinet wares, makers 482, - 657,870

Waggons, number 8658, - 211,625

Carriages, 51 makers, - value 578,816 dollars.
Coopers' wares, 958 shops, - - 845,887

Saddle trees, 10 makers, - 2,075

Last and boot trees, 3 makers, - 3,000

Prints cut, 4 establishments, - 6,000

Printing presses, 2 manufactories, - 26,000
Bark ground, 24 mills.

Baskets, number 24,012, - - 9,406

Rakes, number 11,000, - - 1,876 Corks cut, 3 establishments, - - 5,000
Chip hats, number 6,312.

Spirits of turpentine and varnish, 22,000 galls. 20,650

Sugar refined, pounds 336,459, - 605,610

Tobacco, 67 mills, pounds 2,186,757, 410,910

35 rope-walks, cables, and cordage, 933 tons, 357,498

Playing cards, 4 manufactories, - 12,900

Segars, American, 29,060,000, - - 44,253

Ditto, Spanish, 3,898,999, - - 26,550

Hand bellows, 2 manufactories, - 6,500

Chocolate, pounds 216,200, - - 41,700

Drums, 5 manufactories, - - 2,500

Artificial flowers, - - 6,700

Looking-glass frames, 12 framers, - 100,000

Umbrellas, 7 makers, - - 43,000

Whips, - - 38,000

2008 wheat mills, * bushels, ,4,024,640,1

, , 'I 10,800,290

barrels, 844,417 J

1995 saw mills, feet sawed 73,847,640, 600,430

Maple sugar, pounds 1,046,268, - 119,345

Malt, bushels 3035, - 3,303

Pearled barley, 1 mill, pounds 20,000, 1,100

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* At Pittsburgh there is a steam grist-mill, built by Oliver and Evans of Philadelphia, which, with two pairs of stones, grinds 16 bushels an hour.

Wind.mills, - - value 267 dollars.

Clover seed, 27 mills, bushels 11,650, 54,730
21 mahogany saw-mills, 700,000 feet sawed, 17,800
Rosin and pitch, 2000 barrels, - 8,000

Hemp mills, pounds 3600, 36
Ground ginger, pounds ground 51,000, 5,520
Printing, 108 offices, work, - 353,517

Muslin and linen printing, 122 hands, 8
printers, yards printed, 106,132, - 145,290

The whole amount of manufactures, in 1810, ex. eluding articles of a doubtful nature, amounted to 33,691,111 dollars; the doubtful articles to 12,203,063, consisting of flour and meal manufactured, saw-mills, sugar, saltpetre, malt, pearled barley, clover seed, wind-mills and mahogany saw-mills, hemp mills, slate and lime.

Commerce. *—The exports, in 1799, amounted to 12,431,967 dollars; in 1810, to 10,993,398; of the last, 4,751,634 were of domestic, and 6,241,764 of

•In 1704, Pennsylvania consumed 180,000 pounds sterling in merchandise coming from England, and the imports levied on its natural productions brought a revenue of 30,000 pounds sterling. In the work on American Husbandry, published at London in 1775, is inserted a table of the exports of this province, Vol. I. p. 181.

Biscuit flour, 350,000 barrels at 20s. - L. 350,000

Wheat, 100,000 qrs. at 20s. - - - 100,000

Beans, peas, oats, Indian corn, and other grain, 12,000

Salt beef, pork hams, bacon and venison, - 45,000

Bees wax, 20,000 lb. at Is. - - 1,000

Tongues, butter, and cheese, • - 10,000

Deer, and sundry other sorts of skins, - 50,000 Live stock and horses, ... 20,000

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