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108 UNITED STATES.eries, lead factories, and rope-walks. In Philadelphia there are several iron and brass founderies; manufactories of steam-engines, of lead, copper, &c. to a great amount. A great many vessels are built of pine at the port of Philadelphia, and on the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers. The iron manufacturing establishment in Lancaster county, belonging to Robert Coleman, Esq. is one of the most extensive and productive in the United States. There are others near Carlisle, at Fort London, and in Sherman's Valley; at Shippemburgh, in Cumberland, Hanover in York, and Mercesburg, in Franklin. Gypsum, brought by the Susquehannah from the Western county, 4 dollars per barrel, or 20 per ton.
A great quantity of cider is made from apples, and of brandy from peaches. This operation takes place in November. Almost every farmer has a press, which generally consists of a wheel made of thick oak plank, turning upon a wooden axis by means of a horse power. Whisky is extracted from maize, rye, and buckwheat, and sugar from the juice of the maple tree, some of which, on the banks of the Monongahela, give four pounds in one season, of as good a quality, but not so strong as the musquevado, and valued at IS cents apound. At Harmony, in 1809, the society of that place made 50 gallons of sweet-oil from the white poppy. The bark of sassafras, boiled in urine, in a vessel of metal, is employed to dye wool of a fine orange colour, which seldom fades. The myrtle wax tree yields a wax which is sometimes employed to make candles. Mixed with an equal quantity of tallow, this substance
renders the candles less subject to melt during the heat of summer, makes them burn more slowly, and give out an agreeable odour when extinguished.
The bark of elder furnishes a red or brown dye, the juice of the poke-weed gives a fine purple ; but no method is yet known of fixing it. A species of convolvulus is used as an esculent; and the seeds of a plant resembling broom are used by the Germans as a substitute for chocolate.
Products of Animal and Vegetable Substances.
Flax, hemp, wool, and cotton, value 4,279,174 dollars. Grain, fruits, &c. - - 15,778,424
Leather, - 3, 155,967
Tanneries, - . 1,607,804
Hats, - - . 1,296,346
Paper, ... 1,227,766
Other manufactures, - . 9,451,941
Brushes, 24 makers, - 94,760
Bookbinding, 102 binders, . 107,185
Tortoise shell, ivory and horn, 6740 doz. 80,624
Flax-seed oil, 171 mills, gallons 521,375, 518,421
71,273, per day, - - 376,072
Starch and hair powder, lbs. 358,000, 41,766 Wafers, ... 5,000
Mustard, pounds 25,550, 10,200
Currant wine, barrels 67, - • 3,386
Cabinet wares, makers 482, - 657,870
Waggons, number 8658, - 211,625
Carriages, 51 makers, - value 578,816 dollars.
Saddle trees, 10 makers, - 2,075
Last and boot trees, 3 makers, - 3,000
Prints cut, 4 establishments, - 6,000
Printing presses, 2 manufactories, - 26,000
Baskets, number 24,012, - - 9,406
Rakes, number 11,000, - - 1,876 Corks cut, 3 establishments, - - 5,000
Spirits of turpentine and varnish, 22,000 galls. 20,650
Sugar refined, pounds 336,459, - 605,610
Tobacco, 67 mills, pounds 2,186,757, 410,910
35 rope-walks, cables, and cordage, 933 tons, 357,498
Playing cards, 4 manufactories, - 12,900
Segars, American, 29,060,000, - - 44,253
Ditto, Spanish, 3,898,999, - - 26,550
Hand bellows, 2 manufactories, - 6,500
Chocolate, pounds 216,200, - - 41,700
Drums, 5 manufactories, - - 2,500
Artificial flowers, - - 6,700
Looking-glass frames, 12 framers, - 100,000
Umbrellas, 7 makers, - - 43,000
Whips, - - 38,000
2008 wheat mills, * bushels, ,4,024,640,1
, , 'I 10,800,290
barrels, 844,417 J
1995 saw mills, feet sawed 73,847,640, 600,430
Maple sugar, pounds 1,046,268, - 119,345
Malt, bushels 3035, - 3,303
Pearled barley, 1 mill, pounds 20,000, 1,100
* At Pittsburgh there is a steam grist-mill, built by Oliver and Evans of Philadelphia, which, with two pairs of stones, grinds 16 bushels an hour.
Wind.mills, - - value 267 dollars.
Clover seed, 27 mills, bushels 11,650, 54,730
Hemp mills, pounds 3600, 36
Muslin and linen printing, 122 hands, 8
The whole amount of manufactures, in 1810, ex. eluding articles of a doubtful nature, amounted to 33,691,111 dollars; the doubtful articles to 12,203,063, consisting of flour and meal manufactured, saw-mills, sugar, saltpetre, malt, pearled barley, clover seed, wind-mills and mahogany saw-mills, hemp mills, slate and lime.
Commerce. *—The exports, in 1799, amounted to 12,431,967 dollars; in 1810, to 10,993,398; of the last, 4,751,634 were of domestic, and 6,241,764 of
•In 1704, Pennsylvania consumed 180,000 pounds sterling in merchandise coming from England, and the imports levied on its natural productions brought a revenue of 30,000 pounds sterling. In the work on American Husbandry, published at London in 1775, is inserted a table of the exports of this province, Vol. I. p. 181.
Biscuit flour, 350,000 barrels at 20s. - L. 350,000
Wheat, 100,000 qrs. at 20s. - - - 100,000
Beans, peas, oats, Indian corn, and other grain, 12,000
Salt beef, pork hams, bacon and venison, - 45,000
Bees wax, 20,000 lb. at Is. - - 1,000
Tongues, butter, and cheese, • - 10,000
Deer, and sundry other sorts of skins, - 50,000 Live stock and horses, ... 20,000