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FESSENDEN, Tuomas, of Captain Par- to the Indians in Massachusetts, I. 638,

ker's company at Lexington, I. 561. 643, 640, 649, 657.
FESSENDEN, Thomas GREEN, his “ New Fire-places, in the days of Elizabeth, II.
England Farmer," III. 148.

298.
Festival at Exeter, 23d Aug., 1838, Re- First battles of the Revolutionary War,
marks at the, II. 281-287.

an oration at Concord, 19th April, 1825,
Festival of the Alumni of Harvard Col I. 73-102; II. 659.

lege, 220 July, 1852, III. 112-121. First nobleman, one of the generals of, a
Foidal and Canon Lau, John Adams's fortunate soldier who becomes king, I.
Dissertation on, I. 140; II. 560.

117.
Feudal system, origin of the, III. 560; its Fürst principles for nations, I. 608.
founders animated by a spirit of per- First settlement of New England, an
sonal liberty, I. 118; a check on the Oration at Plymouth, Massachusetts,
despotism of the monarch, 154, 155; 22d Dec., 1824, I. 45-72.
the germ of popular representation, Fish, some speculations respecting, II.
118; character of, 446, 448, 449, 455, 32.
492, 625; tenures of, II. 294, 446; Fisher, DANIEL, of Dedham, II. 183.
patronage under, 308 ; sovereigns un- FISHER, DANIEL, Jr., II. 183.
der, I. 154 ; degradation of the people Fisheries, considered as a means of sup-
under, 607; iron voke of, in the middle plying food, I. 444 ; of Massachusetts,
ages, III. 589; yoke of, broken in II, 143, 144, 295 ; of New England, I.
England, I. 18; mitigated on the con- 60; of Newfoundland, their great ex-
tinent of Europe, 450; abolition of, II. tent in early times, 49, n.; of North
628; III. 171; abolished by commerce, America, extent of, II, 50, 54, 94 ; im-
II. 305; in France before the Revolu- portance of, 72, 277, 290; Burke on,
tion of 1789, I. 628; in France in 50; of Plymouth, made to support pub-
1835, 629; accumulation of property - lic schools, 332.
according to, not permitted in the Uni- Fishing, Daniel Webster's enjoyment of,
ted States, 399.

. III. 394, 405, 406.
Ferr, Franklin's cure for, II. 34. FISK, JOSEPH, M, D., of Capt. Parker's
Fiesole, its vine-clad hills, III. 450. company of Lexington, 1775, present
FILLMORE, MILLARD, late President of at Edward Evereti's Oration, 1835, I.
the United States, his noinination for 561.
the Vice-Presidency of the United Fitch, THOMAS, a member of the Gen-
States, III. 377; his remarks on his eral Court of Massachusetts in 1722,
announcement of the death of Daniel II. 45.
Webster, 250; present at the Annual FITZPATRICK, General, his motion in
Fair at Buffalo, 9th of Oct., 1857, 537. the House of Commons on behalf of
Finance of the United States, III. 638. the liberation of Lafayette, I. 506.
Finance and Accounts, Boston Commit- Flag, American, I. 554, 555.
tees of, their dinner to Thomas Baring, Flag of Massachusetts Bay, carried at
III. 128.

the battle of Lexington April 19th,
Financial crisis in the United States and 1775, by Joseph Simonds, I. 555.
the commercial nations in 1857, III. Flaminian and Appian ways, III. 228.
568, 569; its causes, 570.

Flanders, woollen manufacture of, II.
Fine arts, how affected by natural ad- 78, n.; farmers in, I. 265.
vantages, I. 11; in Greece, 13, 28, 37; FLAVEL, John, his works read by Frank.
in Greece, restricted sphere of, 37; in lin when a boy, III. 608.
Greece, patronized by the government Flar, importance of the culture of, I.
of Athens, 13; in Rome, 28; in Rome, 444.
expire under the princes of the Flavian Flixt, Rev. Josiali, of Dorchester, III.
House, 25; in Rome, in the time of 326.
Cicero, 424; in modern Europe, 29; Flixt, William, killed on the day of
in America, 137 ; III. 627 ; cosmopol- the battle of Lexington, I. 563.
itan influences of, II. 459-461. (See Flood, relies of the days which preceded
Arts; Artists; Middle ages; Painting; the, II. 209.
Sculpture.)

Floors, how covered, in 1481, II. 299.
Fine and useful arts, modern improve- Florence, the city of, its attractions, III.
ments in, III. 560.

450, n.; its situation, palaces, house of
Finster Aar Ilorn, the, III. 581.

Michael Angelo, airy bridges, monu-
Firearms, and weapons of steel, furnished ments of ancient art, museums of an-

tiquities, well-stored libraries, beautiful vival on the adoption of the Federal
gardens, delicious air, glory connected Constitution, 261, 269, 271 ; protected
with the triumphs and sufferings of by marine insurance, 262. (See Com-
Galileo Galilei, 450; persecution of merce; United States.)
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio by, I. Foreign relations of the United States.
26; principle of atmospheric pressure (See United States.)
discovered by Torricelli of, 296; obli- Foreigners, to be kindly received, III.
gations of, to commerce, 11. 305; mer- 222. (See Emigration ; United States.)
chant princes of, patrons of arts and FORSYTI, Joux, Secretary of State, his
letters, INI, 164, 300; Horario Green- anecdote of General Jackson, II. 617.
ough's residence at, II. 400; meeting Fort Cumberland, Washington arrives at,
of the Scientific Association at, in 1841, J. 590; Col. Orme at, 597; Col. Dun-
631.

bar returns to, 598.
Florida, ceded by Spain to the United Fort Duquesne, erected by the French, I.
States, II. 577; III. 312; referred to, 589.
I. 384.

Fort Iloosac, recollections of, II. 207.
Flour, American, exported to Great Fort Independence, in Boston Harbor, III.
Britain, II. 445, 446 ; sent from Boston 322.

for the relief of the starving Irish, 539. Fort Massachusetts, recollections of, II.
Flower of Esser," fall of the, I. 634, n., 207; Colonel Ephraim Williams's sup-
654-656; II. 187; alarm and sorrow posed speech to the settlers at, 232-
produced by, I. 656; the heaviest catas. 234.
trophe which had befallen the colony, Fort Necessity, Washington capitulates
656; to be held in honored remem- to the French at, 4th July, 1754, I. 385,
brance, 669.

590; II. 270.
Fluids, liquid and aēriform, further dis- Fort Orange, erected in 1623, III. 426 ;

coveries in, anticipated, I. 617. • its dependent hamlet is called Albany
Fly, the, injurious to vegetation, III. in 1664, 426.
550.

Fort Schuyler, Washington at, in 1784,
Flying artillery, organized by Frederic II. 153.

the Great, I. 482; introduced into the Fort Washington, loss of, by the Ameri-
service of the French by Lafayette, cans, I. 46+.
482.

Fort Willian Ilenry, disastrous capitula-
Fogy," old, his plea for gold, III. 387. tion of, in 1757, I. 394, 539.
(See old fogies.)

Forth, the, visited by Mr. Everett, II.
FOLGIER, PETER, father-in-law of 377.
Franklin, II. 7; scientific taste of bis Fortunes, few large ones accumulated
descendants, 7.

before the Revolution, III. 268; dis-
FOXTAINE, JEAN DE LA, his works a parity of, in the United States, I. 452;

favorite with J. Q. Adams, II. 589. reverses of, in the United States in
FONTANES, L'ABBÉ, his funeral oration 1857, III, 569, 570, 598, 599.

in honor of Washington, III. 634. Fossil animals in America, II. 426 ;
Food, provided by agriculture, II. 444; plants, found in the coal strata at
immense daily consumption of, in the Swina, 209; animals, discovered by
world by man and domestic animals, I. Cuvier, 210; bones, in the gypsum
414; III. 541; annual consumption of, quarries near Paris, 210; substances,
in the United States, II. 73; impor- in general use and consumption, I.
tance of, to the body, 275, 276, 291. 274.
Foot, Mr., of Connecticut, his Resolu- FOSTER, General GIDEON, his valor on
tion on the Public Lands of the United the 19th of April, 1775, II, 187; present
States in the Senate 29th December, at Mr. Everett's Oration, 28th Septem-
1829, and Daniel Webster's Speech on, ber, 1836, 187, 188.
III. 392.

Foulon, J. F., murdered by the mob
FOOTE, General, his speech at the cele in Paris, in 1789, I. 488.
bration of the Birthday of Washington Foundation schools of England, II. 628.
in New York, III. 58, 59.

Fourth of July at Lowell, an Oration on
Forecastle, in ships, disgraceful neglect the 5th of July, 1830, II. 47-68.

of proper ventilation of the, III. 576. Fourth of July, 1838, Remarks made at
Foreign trade of the United States, its de- the celebration of the, in Fancuil Hall,
pressed condition at the close of the II. 268-272.
American Revolution, III. 259; its re- Fourth of July, a Speech before the

Young Men's Democratic Club, of
Boston, 5th of July, 1838, III. 637–
6+7.
Fourth of July, a memorable day in the
annals of America, I. 377, 385, 401,
590; John Adams's exclamation re-
specting, on his death-bed, 148 ; ora-
tions on, their character, Pref, ix. ; how
it should be celebrated, III, 225 ; les-
sons of the, 228; should never be dese-
criated by ebullitions of party spirit, I.
377, 378; value of the celebration of,
as a bond of union, 380, 381, 401 ; Re-
marks at the municipal dinner at Fan-
euil Hall on, in 1853, by Edward Ev-
erett, III. 224-231. (See July, Fourth
of)
Fourvières, hill of, III. 581; chapel of
our Lady of, 582; pilgrimages to her
shrine, 582.
FOWLER, Orix, chairman of the Com-
mittee of the Massachusetts legislature,
on aid to the colleges, II. 540, 541.
For trily of Indians, a part of the Dela-
wares, II. 256, 257; Jonathan Edwards
on, 256, 257; at Washington, D, C.,
in 1837, 236; their ancient name, 258.

(See Sanks and Fores.)
Fox, CHARLES JAMES, his speech in the
House of Commons, on behalf of the
liberation of Lafayette from Olmütz,
I. 505; his defence of American rights,
396; his eulogy on Washington, III.
633 ; his rupture with Burke, II. 592;
his eloquence, III. 46.
Forborough, Massachusetts, III. 315.
Framingham, Massachusetts, History of,
by the Rev. Wm. Barry, II. 138; Revo-
lutionary patriots of, I. 563.
France. (See also, French Revolution ;

French Wars in America; Napo-
leon I.; Seven Years' War.
Africa, colonization of, by. (See

Colonies, post.)
Agriculture in, Í. 450; III. 148, 213.
Alcuin, his services to, I. 407.
Allies in possession of, I. 514.
America, colonies of, in. (See Col.

onies, post.)
American commissioners and minis-

ters sent to, II. 563, 564.
American Revolution, influence of,

on, I. 484, 486.
Army of, 1. 392; II. 229; III. 616,
617.
Austria, war of, with, I. 76, 496, 497.
Ballor-box in, III. 12.
Battles in, III. 590.
Books of, I. 627.
Broglie, Duc de, on instruction in,
II. 513, n.

Bureaucracy of the old régime in, I.

Pref. viii.
Chamber of Deputies, reforms ad.

vocated in, I. 515.
Charles X., his folly in, and flight

from, I. 517.
Civil wars of, I. 125.
Clergy of, under Louis XIV. and

Louis XV., I. 485, 629.
Clothing, imported from, into the

United States, 1775–81, II. 76.
Colonies of, in Africa, I. 340, 343.
Colonies of Greece, in. (See Greece,

post.)
Colonies of, in North America. I. 74,
384, 385, 386, 387, 584, 585; II.
51, 559, 560; III. 17, 204, 205,
248, 615.
Commerce of, in 1660-63, II. 123.
Condition of, in 1789, I. 628, 629;
in 1828-30, 168, 514, 516-518; in

1835, 629.
Constitutional government in, I. 168,

169.
Court of, under Louis XIV., and
Louis XV., I. 125, 126, 485; in

1789, 628, 629.
Decline of, M. Raudot on, II. 660.
Education in, I. 601; II. 229, 315,
316, 335, 336, 339, 513, n., 515;
in 1835, 601.
Egypt, designs on, hy, I. 170.
England disputes the possession of
North America with, I. 387, 559,
560, 584, 585; at war with, in 1704,
76; in 1778, 473, 475; in 1815,76;
gains victories in, I. 76; III. 337.
Exiles of, in the United States, I.

512.
Farms, small, in, III. 213.
Feudal system in, before 1789, I.
628.
Funeral orations in, in 1789, I. 629.
Generals, youthful, of, III. 617.
Government of, I. 168, 169, 483;

III. 26, 28.
Grand army of, in 1812, III. 616,617.
Great Britain and, I. 382, 481, 570.
Greece, colonies of, in, I. 37.
Henry IV., reign of, in, II. 641.
Holland revolutionists of, 1787, and,

I. 483.
Hospital in, how named, III. 589.
Indians in America, in league with,

I. 51.
Jury, trial by, in, I. 269.
Lafuyette, advocates reforms in, I.
515; decides for an hereditary con-
stitutional monarchy in, 517; saves
the life of Louis XVI., 525; saves
the guilty ministers of Charles X.,

I. 241.

517; raises Louis Philippe to the Revolution of 1789 in, I. 483, 485,
throne of, 518; services of, to Amer 496, 496, 497,628, 629. (See French
ica. (See Lafuyette, in General Rezolution, in General Index.)
Index.)

Revolution of 1830 in, peaceful char-
Liberty in, I. 168, 510; II. 614; acter of, I. 517.
III. 26, 28.

Revolution of 1848 in, II. 586, 596,
Literature in, I. 22, 407, 627. .

598.
Louis XIV., abuses in the reign of, Seven Years' War and, I. 386, 480.

I. 125, 126, 485, 486; politics in (See Seren Years' War, in General
the reign of, 570.

Index.)
Louis XV. anticipates a revolution Sisters of Charity in, III. 590.
in, I. 483; abuses in the reign of, Society in, at the time of the Revo-
485, 186.

lution of 1789, I. 628, 629.
Louis XVIII., abuses in the reign of, Spain held by, I. 390.
I. 510; cabinet of, 514.

Spoliations of, in the commerce of
Louis Philippe raised to the throne the United States, III. 268.

of, I. 518; territory of, under, II. 586. States, new, destitute of skill to found,
Ministers between America and, II. III. 205.
564, 565.

Steam-packets from, II. 371.
Monarchs of, their influence on the Territory of, under Louis Philippe,
literature of, I. 22.

II. 586.
Nantes, Revocation of the Edict of, United States, alliance of, with, I,

166, 389, 390, 392, 396, 475, 476,
Napoleon I., rise of the power of, in, 477, 478,480,481,483, 525; II. 563,

I. 506, 507, 513, 514; fall of, 509, 564; III. 25, 28; contrasted with,
514.

I. 401; exiles in, from, 512; minis-
Navy of, II. 229.

ters between and, II. 564, 565; neu-
New England, trade of, with, 1660 trality maintained by, between
65, II. 123.

Great Britain and, in 1793, 570;
Nobility of, in the Revolution of their political relations with, about
1789, I. 525; under Napoleon I., 1790, III. 267, 268; prisons of, ex-
507, 508.

amined by commissioners from, II.
Normal schools in, II. 335, 336, 201, 203; probability of a war with,
339.

in 1798, III. 617; spoliation claims
Paris, influence of, on, I. 96, 457, of, against, 268. (See Clothing, ante.)
629; III. 557; character of the University, meaning of the term in,
population of, in 1833, I. 423.

II. 495.
Peace of, with Great Britain in 1783, War of, with England in 1778, I.
I. 481.

473, 475. (See England, ante.)
Peasantry of, condition of, in 1833, I. Wars, civil, of, I. 125; of the Revo-
423.

lution of 1789 in, I. 496, 497; III.
People, character of the, in, I. 10; in 617; civil, of, I. 125. (See Austria;
1789, I. 423, 628.

Prussia, ante.)
Philosophy of, I. 628.

Washington, public mourning for, in,
Political philosophy in, I. 168, 510, III. 633.

515, 516-518; III. 26, 28, 205. FRANCIS II., Emperor of Germany, im-
Poor of, uneducated, II. 229.

portuned by the Marchioness de Lafay.
Population of, in the time of Napo ette and her daughters for the freedom
leon I., I. 392; in 1789 and in 1816 of Lafayette, I. 504; refuses to liberate
the saine, II. 660.

Lafayette, 505, 513; ingratitude of this
Press of, in 1789, I. 629.

refusal to Lafayette, 513; his answer,
Protestants in, I. 482.

commented on by Mr. Fox in the Brit-
Prussia, war of, with, I. 76.

ish House of Commons, 505; is ap-
Raudot, M., on the Decline of, II. pealed to, on behalf of Lafayette by
660.

General Washington, 506; lis forces
Reforms in, advocated by Lafayette, defeated by Napoleon I. in the cam-
I. 515.

paign of 1797, 506.
Representative system in, I. 168, 510; FRANCIS, Mr., President of the Mechanic
III. 26, 28, 33.

Association of Boston, III. 89.
Republican government in. (See FRANCIS, CONVERS, D. D., his literary

Representative system in, ante.) productions, II. 139.
VOL. III.

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FRANKE, Augustus Herman, his con-

nection with normal schools, II. 336.
Frankfort, English Protestants at, III.

304.
Franklin, New Hampshire, Daniel Web-
ster's almiration of the rivers and
mountains of, III. 401; Mr. Webster's

farin at, 403.
FRANKLIN, ABIAN, mother of Benjamin
Franklin, and daughter of Peter Fol.
gier, her excellent character, II. 7; her
son Benjamin places an epitaph over
her grave, 7, 8.
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, uncle of Frank
lin, II. 5; encourages Franklin's taste
for reading, 9.
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, The Boyhood
and Youth of, a Lecture delivered in
Boston 17th of November, 1829, II. 1-
46.
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, his ancestry,
III. 482-485; remarkable career of, I.
308, 321, 322; II. 1, 2; III. 415; dis-
tinction of, as a philosopher, I. 322; II.
2; III. 644; excellent style of, as a
writer, I. 144; II. 2, 4, 19, 23, 40; as
cribes his advancement principally to
his style its a prose writer, 17,40; busi-
ness talent and statesmanship of, 2;
excellent auto-biography of, 2-4, 8,
11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23,
24,29,33; II. 620; III. 607-10; editions
of the works of, II.3; the works of, edit.
cd by Jared Sparks, 4, n., 139, 621; III.
610; social position of, compared with
that of Washington, II. 4; family of, 4,
5; zeal of the family of, for the Protest
ant faith, 5; cause of the removal of
the family of, to America, 6; the house
where he was born, 6; occupation of
the brothers of, 8; early education of,
8-10, 22; III. 607; self-taught, I. 250;
II. 552, 620; destined for the church,
9; his early love of reading, 9, 14-16,
18-21, 30, 31, 37, 38; III. 606-612;
does not succeed at first in arithmetic,
II. 8, 9, 21; legacy of, for prize medals,
10,11; becomes apprentice to his father,
11, 14; fond of the water, 11; well
trained by his father, 13; anxious to
go to sea, 14, 15, 33; books read by,
when a youth, 14, 15; bound apprentice
to his brother, 15; his love for reading
encouraged by Matthew Adams, 16;
becomes a poet, 16, 19; his turn for
writing verses encouraged by his
brother James, 16; but discouraged
by his father, 17; becomes a prose
essayist, and is encouraged therein by
his fuher, 17, 18, 19; adopts the Spec-
tator as his model, 19; III. 496; re-

ligious speculations of, influenced by
the writings of Shaftesbury and Collins,
II. 20, 21, 31, 42; industry and perse-
verance of, I. 285, 304; becomes a vege-
tarian and sares money for buving
books, II. 20, 21; the temperance of,
the foundation of his success in life, I.
304; II. 21, 31, 40; studies arithmetic,
navigation, intellectual philosophy,
grammar, and logic, and becomes a
skilful controversialist, 21; becomes
an anonymous contributor to the New
England Courant, 23; III. 607; differ-
ences of, with his brother James, and
their influence on his career, II. 23, 24,
26, 30, 31, 38; editor pro tempore of
the Courant, 27, 40; admonished by
the Council, 28; the Courant published
in the name of, 29, 30; change of his
indentures and the advantage taken of
this circumstance, 29, 30; leaves his
brother's printing office, and takes pas.
sage for New York 1723, 31; takes to
natural philosophy and a fish diet on
the voyage, 32; finds no employment
in New York, and takes passage for
Philadelphia, 34; hardships of travel,
33; doctors himself for a fever, 34;
invited to set up printing in Burlington
by a kind hostess, 34; arrives at Phila-
delphia and makes a purchase of bread,
35, 36; takes a nap in a Quaker meet-
ing, 36; finds employment with Andrew
Bradford and Keimer alternately, 37;
urged to return home by his brother-in-
law, Captain Holmes, 37; encouraged
to set up a printing-office by Sir W'il-
liam Keith, 37; returns to Boston in
May, 1724, with letters from Sir Wil-
liam Keith, 37, 38; his father declines
to advance him capital for the printing
business, 38; encouraged by Sir Wil-
liam Keith to visit London, 39; ar-
rives in London, 1724, and finds the
Governor has deceived him, 39; forms
a connection with Mr. Denham, and
returns to Philadelphia in 1726, 39, 40;
becomes foreman to Keimer, 40; with
Meredith establishes a printing-office,
40; purchases the Pennsylvania Ga-
zette, publishes a pamphlet on paper
currency, and the "Poor Richard " Al-
manac, 40; establishes the Philadelphia
Library, 40; III. 607; becomes Post-
master of Philadelphia, 11. 40; estab-
lishes a city watch and a fire company,
the Philosophical Society, and the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania, 41 ; how first
led to electrical experiments, and
therein assisted by Peter Collinson's
apparatus, 428; proves the identity of

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