Page images
PDF
EPUB

351. Logs for sawing are usually calculated according to the quantity of square edged inch boards which they will make by being sawed. To facilitate this calculation, numerous tables have been constructed, but generally on erroneous principles, not being proportioned to the cubic quantities in the logs. The following table is the result of a great number of experiments and calculations, and is believed to be more accurate than any hitherto published.

LOG TABLE-BOARD MEASURE.

io.il; 12 | 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 12 5561 071 73 79 85 91 97: 103 109 115 121 128 134 13 65 72 79 26 93 100 107 114 121 129 136 143 150 157 11 75 83 92 100 103 115 125 1.23. 141. 1501 158! 166 175 2183 15 86.96 105 115 125 134 141 154 163 172 182 191 201 211 16 98 109 120 131 142 153 164 175 185 196 207 218 2291 240 171101122131! 147 159 171 184 196 208 220 232 244 2571 269 18 12 1137 151 165 1791 192 206 220 234 247 260 274 289 302 19138153 169 184 199 215 230 2451 261 276 291 307) 322 337 20153170 187 204 221| 238 255 272 289 306 323 310 357 374 21 169|187 206 2251 2441 262 281 300 319 337) 356 375 3941 412 22185 206 226 217 268 288 309 329 350 370 391 412 432 453 23.202225 217 270 292 315 337 360 382 405 427 450 472 495 24.220245 269 294 3181 343 367 392 416 411 465 490 514 539 25 239 266 292 319 346 3721 399 425! 452 478 505 532 558 585 261258287 316 315 373 402 431 460 489 517 516) 575 604 632 27 279 310 311 372 403 134 465 496 527 558 589 620 651 682 22.300.333 367 400 133 467 500 533 567 6001 633 667 700 733 29/322|357 393 429 464 500 536 572 608) 643 679 715 751 786 3034382 121 459) 1971 535 571 612 650 688 727 765 803 841 31 367 408 449 490 531 572 612 653 691 735 770 -17 957 900 32391 435 478 522 565 609 652 696 739 783 826 870 913 957 33416162 509 555 601 647 694 740 786 832 879 925 971 1017 3142,192|541' 590 639 688 737 787) 836 885 934 983|1032 1082 35,469521 573 625 677 729 781 833 886 937 990/1042 1094 1146 3649615511606 661 716 771 820 881) 936 991 1047 1102 1157|1212 37 5211582640 638 756 8141.872 931 989 1047 1105 11631221 1280 33/5525131375 736 797 859 920 981 1043 11041165 1227 1288 1349 39 582617711 776 811 905 970 1035 10991164122912931358 1423 106126301748, 81€ 38+1 952 1020 1088 1156 1224 1292 1360|1:128) 1496 41612714) 785 857 928 1000 1071 1143 1214 1285 1357 1128 1500 1571 26751750 825 H30 975/105011125 120011275 1350 1425/1500 1575 1650 13707 786 864 943 1022 1100 1179 1257 1336 141414931572 1650 1729 14/730 819 895, 987 10691151 1234 1316 1398 1480|1563 1645 1727 1809 +3775 861'947 1033 1119 1205 129111377|14631549163611722 1808 1894

USE OF THE TABLE,

How many feet of inch square edged boards can be sawed from a log 19. feet long and 27 inches diameter ?

Under 19 and against 27 we have 589 feet, the enower,

SECTION VI.

I. Book-keeping.

862. Book-KEEPING is the method of recording a systematic account of mercantile transactions.

Every mercantile transaction consists in giving one thing for another. This change of property should be distinctly recorded in a book, or books, prepared for the purpnse, so that the man of business may ai all times know the true state of his affairs.

FARMER'S BOOK-KEEPING.

FIRST METHOD.

[ocr errors]

cts.

29.

[ocr errors]

April 14.

[ocr errors]

353. Py this method but one bouk is :ecessary, which shortkl be ruled with four columns on the right hand side of each page, two for det or colo uinns, and two for credit, and one column on the left hird side kor the daie, as in the following exainple.

Debtor. 1828.

THOMAS HARDY, Jan. 28. Dr. to 2} tons of hay, at $8.

20 00 Cr. by 11 bush. of corn, at 18 cts.

72 Feb. 2. Cr. by cash. 4. Dr. to 30 lb. of flax, at 12 cts.

3 60
9. Dr. to 25 lb. of tlax, at 12 cts.

3 00
Cr. by 12 bush. wheat, at $1.
Cr. by cash to balance.

88

| 26 | 60 2031 60 On account of its simplicity, the above method is probably the hest which can be recommended to farmers and country mechanics. In keeping books in this way, it will be necessary to leave a considerable bikink after each man's account, that it may be contimed without transferring in to another part of the book; and also to have a list of the names with the pages standing against them for the more convenient reference to the new eral accounts.

354. The person who receives any thing of me is Dr. to me, and the person from whom I receive is Cr. Of, the persou, who becomes indebted io me, whether by receiving goods or money, or by my paying his debis, &c. must be entered Dr. : and the person to whom I become inchebied whether by receiving from him goods or money, or by the payment of my debis, must be entered Cr.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

366. By this method the debt and credit are entered on separate pages facing each other, with the debt on the left hand, ani tbe crpalit out the right band, as in the following example.

50 cts.

11 cts.

1825. PETER PINDLE, Dr. $ cts. 1825. [PETER PINDLE, Cr.

cts. Jan. 1 To 3 cords of wood, Jan. 1 By 12/h. shingle-nails, at $1 50

4 501
at 10 cts.

1 20 8 To 54 bush. of rye, at

6|By 25lb. of sugar, at
2/ 75
)

21 75 Feb. 2 TO 3 bush. of wheat,

21 By 1 cwt. ironi, at $

69 00 at $1 25

3 75| Feb.11 By lib. young hyson 18 To 5 cords of wood,

tea, at $1 10

2 201 at $1 50

71 501 13 By 10lb. of loaf sugar, 19 To 7 bush. of oats, at

at 30 ets.

3 00 25 cts.

1 75 24 By Gydy.. black silk, .24 To cash to balance 3 30

at 20 cts.

51 10 123) 55+

1231 55

356. Either of the foregoing methods may answer for farmers, and for mechanics generally, but to the retail merchant, and others whose business is extensive, an acquaintance with book-keeping by the day-book and leger, called sinále. ENTRY, or hy the day-book, jo'ırnal and leger, called Dov BLE ENTRY, is indispensable. The latter is much the most perfect systein, and far best for wholesale dealers, but as it is more complicaied and seldom ased, we shall confine our attention to the former, which is general y adopted by merchants and others in this country.

BOOK-KEEPING BY SINGLE ENTRY. Single entry requires two principal books, the day-book, or waste book, and the leger, and one auxiliary book, the cash book.

1. THE DAY BOOK.

357. This book is ruled with two columns on the right hand for dollars and cents, one column on the left, for inserting the folio or page of the leger to which the account is transferred, and a top line over which is written the month, date and year. The articles are separated from each other by a line drawn across the page, and the transactions of one day from those of another by a double livre, in the centre of which is the day of the month.

This book cominences with an account of all the property, debts, &c. of the person, and is followed by a distinct record of all the transactions in trade in the order of time in which they occur, with every circumstance necessary to render the transaction plain and intelligible.*

In entering accounts in the day-book, the following order should be observed 1, the date ; 2, the name of the person, with the abbreviation Dr. or Cr. at the right hand as he is debtor or creditor, by the transaction; 3, the article or articles with the price annexėd, and the value carried out into the ruled columns, with the amount placed directly under, when there is more than one article charged; and 4, the page to which the account is transferred in the leger. For the better undeiglanding of the day-book, see the specimen annexed.

* As the day book is the decisive book of reference, in case of any supposed mistake, or error in the accounts in the leger, it is of the greatest in portance that every trapsaction be noted in it wiil particular perspicuity and accuracy.

558 362.

BOOK-KEEPING.

157

2. THE LEGER. 358. Each page of the leger is ruled with a top line, on which is written the name of the person, and marked Dr. on the left hand for receiving the debited articles, and Cr. on the right for receiving the credited articles of the day-book. On the right hand of both Dr. and Cr. sides, are ruled two columns for dollars and cents, and on their left, two columns, one for the page of the day-book, and one for the month, and for the date. The leger has an index, in which the names of persons are arranged under their initial letters, with the page in the leger, where the account may be found.

359. Rule for Posting. Under the name of the person, enter the several transactions on the Dr. or Cr. side in the leger, as they stand debited or credited in the day book. When several things are included in the same transaction, they are distinguished by the term “sundries.” Some accounts ants enter in the leger only the page of the day-book and the amount of the transaction, without specifying the items, but the former is thought to be the most correct method.

360. Baluncing Accounts.-When all the articles are correctly posted into the leger, each account is balanced by subtracting the less side from the greater, and entering the balance on the less side, by which both sides are made equal. The excess of all the balances on the Dr. over those on the Cr. sides, being added to the cash on hand and the value of the goods unsold, the sum is ihe net of the estate, which, compared with the stock at the commencement of business, exhibits the merchant's gain.

361. When the place assigned to any person's account is filled with items, the person's name must not be entered the second time, but may be transferred to another page in the following manner, viz. Add up, the Dr. and Cr. columns and against the sums write, Amount transferred to page

here inserting the page where the new account is opened. Begin the new account by entering on the Dr. side, T'o amount brought ftom page , inserting the page of the old account, and on the Cr. side, By amount brought from puge inserting the page of the old account, placing the sums in their proper columns.

As several' day books and legers may be necessary in the progress of business, they should be distinguished by lettering thein, as follows: daybook A. day-book B. &c.-leger A. leger B. &c. and in posting accounts into the leger, there must be a reference to day-book A. or B. &c. as the account is found in one or another.

3. CASH BOOK. 362.

In the cash-book are recorded the daily receipt and payment of money. For this purpose it is ruled with separate columns, one for money received, and the other for money paid, 'in which should be recorded merely the date, to or by whom paid, and the sum. The cash-book is cons venicnt, but not absolutely necessary. Other auxiliary books are sometimes used, a:d are important in some kinds of business, but the account. ant will readily form these for himself, as circumstances reuder them non cessary.

1

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

. a .12

a .22

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

DAY BOOK. 1) Albany, January 3, 1825.

January 13.

(3 P INVENTORY 1 $ let.||P Zera Coleman Dr.

ct. of ready money, gooils 2 to 3 quint. fish a $4.25 1275 and debts due i me, Timothy Standish, mer

John Kelley

Cr. chant, Albany.

2By cash on account,

50 Money on hand $823.00 1 P.Pindar owes me ziz.

John Strong

Dr. 1 John Kelley,

122.00

2To cash on former acc't. 4675 2 Thomas Scott, 16.00

-2416 cwt. sug. a 9.50 152.001

Charles Gray

Dr. 25 quint. fish a 3.50 87.30

2 ro 8 lbs. sugar
300 lb.coffee a $18. 54.00

4 lbs. coffee
3 lbs. Hyson tea « $1.25

559 1466.501

February 2
Titus Cole

Cr.
DEBTS

2 By 120 gal. molasses a. 28 Owed by me, the said

86 gal. wine a $1.31 Timothy Standish.

116 gal. N. E. ruma .42 194/98 3 To Dávid Terry, as per account, $12.00

Simon Pond

Dr.
Johu Strong, 119.00 2 To 5 gal. N. E. rum a.53 2165
Felix Storrs, 238.00

3

Calvin Owen Dr.
S96.00

2To 1 gal. wine a $1.75
Net|107015011 7 gals, molasses

4169 Samuel English Dr.

Samuel Adams

Dr. 1 To 2 quint. fish, a $1.25 1 1 To cash on account, 126/75 20 lbs. coffee a .221

5
| 12,901 Samuel English Cr.
By 6 bush. wheat

4198
Peter Pindar Cr.
1 By cash on former ace't.| 112

Thomas Scott Cr.
7
2 By cash to balance,

16) Sylvester Warren Dr.

8 11 To 48 lbs.

Levi Munson Dr. 7 lbs, a. Ban

- Q .222 7,30 1 To 4 quint. fish a $4.00

10-
Samuel Adams Cr.*

5 gal. molasses
1 By 2 chests Hyson tea,

Cr. 160 lbs. a $1.00

By cash on acc't. $10.00
4 chests Bohea lea,

8 bush. corn
320 lbs. •
a 401
10 bush, rye

18 84
288
John Kelley

Cr:
Levi Munson

2 Liy cash on acc't. to bal. 721 1¡To 3 lbs. Bobea tea a .62

a .831

Q.12

40 lbs. sugar

a 12 a 42

22190

a .48
a .50

Dr.

1 lb. Hyson lea a $1.2.1
4 lbs. coffee

- a .121

5.191 * By single entry, goods bought are entered, either in an invoice book, kept for the purpose, or posted immediately into the leger from the invoices, or bills of parcels. This method is not, however, adopted here; but the goods are creditod the seller, and afterwards transferred to his account in

•• 0 .921

10 lbs. sugar

the leger.

« PreviousContinue »