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duty to cultivate piety towards God, admits not of any doubt
II. Nouns in apposition, when accompanied by adjuncts, are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, Homer, the greatest poet of antiquity, is said to have been blind. When unaccompanied by adjuncts, the comma is not required; as, The Poet Homer is said to have been blind.
III. The simple members of a complex sentence are generally separated by commas; as, Italy is a large peninsula, bounded on the north by the Alps. The command being given, the soldiers rushed upon the enemy. Whether he visits us in tempests, or smiles upon us in serenity, the Almighty is alike the Father and the Benefactor of the Creation. When the members are very closely connected, the comma is not required; as, Religion purifies and refines the affections. Modesty is a quality which adorns human nature.
IV. Parenthetical and explanatory phrases, certain adverbs and adverbial phrases, are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, "Marriage," says the Spectator," enlarges the scene of our happiness and miseries." The king, in the meantime, learns the disasters of his army. It soon became evident, however, that he could not accomplish his design. My own opinion, at least, favours the proposal.
V. Words of the same part of speech following each other in the same sentence, without a conjunction, are separated by commas; as, She is a discreet, benevolent, and pious woman. Couches, baskets, mats, bags, and brushes, are made from the leaves of the date tree.
VI. Words of the same part of speech following each other in pairs are separated by commas; as, Anarchy and confusion, poverty and distress, desolation and ruin, are the consequences of civil war. Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and consistent.
VII. Words denoting the persons or objects in a direct address are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, Remember, my son, that human life is the journey of a day. Rejoice, O young man, in thy strength!
VIII. When a verb is understood, its place is often supplied by a comma; as, To err is human; to forgive, divine.
IX. An indirect quotation is separated by a comma; as, It is the property of a fool to say, that he had no thought.
X. Inverted commas are used to denote a direct quotation; as, " Sir," says the dervise, " give me leave to ask your majesty a question or two."
The Semicolon indicates a greater pause in the construction of a discourse than the comma, and is —(generally used in the following circumstances.
I. When the members of a complex sentence express distinct propositions that are independent of each other, but have immediate reference to the subject of discourse, they are separated by semicolons; as, A friend cannot be known in prosperity; and an enemy cannot be hidden in adversity. Listen to the affectionate counsels of your parents; treasure up their precepts; respect their riper judgments; and endeavour to merit the approbation of the wise and good. Is it not in the highest degree interesting to find, that the power which keeps the earth in its shape and in its path, extends over all the other worlds that compose the universe; that the same power keeps the moon in her path round the earth; that the same power causes the tides upon our earth and the peculiar form of the earth itself; and that, after all, it is the same power which makes a stone fall to the ground?
II. Antithetical clauses are generally separated by a semicolon; as, Learning is preferable to riches; but virtue is preferable to both. When the subject is not expressed in the second clause, a comma only is required; as, The work progresses slowly, but surely.
III. When one clause is added to another, not to complete the sense, but merely to explain or illustrate what has been said, it is generally separated by a semicolon; as, Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the earth. Green is the most refreshing colour to the eye; therefore Providence has made it the common dress of nature. The ostrich as much resembles a quadruped as a bird; and, at a distance, it is often mistaken for a camel.
The Colon indicates a greater pause in the construction of a discourse than the semicolon, and is generally used in the following circumstances.
I. When part of a sentence, which is complete in sense and construction, is followed by some remark or illustration that is not introduced by a conjunction, it is separated by a colon; as, No man should be too positive: the wisest are often deceived. When the conjunction is expressed, the semicolon is used; as, No man should be too positive; for the wisest are often deceived.
II. When a sentence contains a series of distinct propositions, and concludes with a clause upon which they all depend, that clause is separated by a colon; as, That the diamond should be made of the same material as coal; that water should be chiefly composed of an inflammable substance; that acids should be almost all formed of different kinds of air; and that one of those acids, whose strength can dissolve almost any of the metals, should be made of the selfsame ingredients with the common air we breathe: these, surely, are things to excite the wonder of any reflecting mind.
III. The colon is generally used before a direct quotation; as, The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity in these words: "God is love."
The Period. The Period indicates a greater pause in the con
8truction of a discourse than the colon, and is generally used in the following circumstances.
I. When a sentence is complete, it is terminated by a period, unless it is interrogative or exclamatory; as, The wants of infancy are numerous. The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.
II. The period is used after abbreviations; as, D.D., Rev.
Interrogation, Exclamation, Dash, and Parentliesis.
I. The Point of Interrogation is placed at the end of a sentence that asks a question; as, Can riches make a man happy? Who can, by searching, find out God?
II. The Point of Exclamation is placed after words that express some emotion; as, How are the mighty fallen! What lonely magnificence stretches around!
III. The Dash is used to mark an abrupt or unexpected turn in a sentence; as,
And one—o'er her the myrtle showers
IV. The Parenthesis is used to enclose some explanatory word or phrase introduced into the middle of a sentence, but not necessary to the construction; as, The vapour of water (steam) upon cooling becomes a liquid.
The bliss of man (could pride that blessing find)