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Example.—Scale. Fishes are covered with scales. The scales balanced. A scale of prices was established, soldiers offered to scale the walls.











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1. Write the following simple sentences, changing the expression and construction.


The whale is the largest animal. The whale is larger than any other animal. The whale surpasses all other animals in size. The whale is unequalled in size by any other animal. The size of the whale exceeds that of any other animal. No animal is so large as the whale. All animals are inferior in size to the whale. The whale is pre-eminent over every other animal in respect of size. No animal approaches the whale in magnitude. All animals must yield to the whale in point of size. No other animal ever reaches the magnitude of the whale. The whale is without a rival in magnitude among other animals.


Iron is the most useful of all metals. The West Indies are frequently visited by hurricanes. The eye infinitely surpasses all the works of human ingenuity. Europe is indebted to other quarters of the world for the most important of her natural productions. We should frequently think upon death. We should never practise dissimulation. We may derive many useful lessons from the lower animals. A profusion of beautiful objects everywhere surrounds us. All our practical knowledge of God is derived from the Bible.

2. Render the idea contained in each of the following simple sentences by means of antithetical expressions.


Virtue is amiable. Vice is odious.

Industry is the road to wealth. Idleness leads to poverty.


Temperance preserves the health. Virtue is the surest road to happiness. Joy suggests pleasant thoughts. Virtue is its own reward. The hand of the diligent maketh rich. Punctuality procures confidence. Honesty is the best policy. Cowards die many times. Precipitation ruins the best contrived plan. Diligence ensures success. Regularity hastens the despatch of business. Pride is the offspring of ignorance. Contentment produces happiness. Improvidence is often followed by want. Modesty enhances merit. Virtue ennobles the mind. A wise son maketh a glad father. The wicked flee when no man pursueth.

Section vrn.


Write nine simple sentences upon each of the following words.


The horse is a quadruped. The horse is a domestic animal. The horse is distinguished by its mane. The horse is a very useful animal. The plough is drawn by horses. The hide of the horse is manufactured into leather. The flesh of the horse is eaten in Tartary. Arabian horses are remarkable for their swiftness. Horses are used in war.


1. Dog, cow, fox, reindeer, camel, elephant, whale, salmon, crow, swallow, nightingale, eagle.

2. Gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, brass, quicksilver, stone, wood, coal, diamond.

3. Sun, moon, star, air, storm, earthquake, fire, ocean, mountain, river, tree, flower.

4. Ship, compass, steam-engine, railway, canal, coach, bridge, telescope, microscope, telegraph, balloon, thermometer.

5. Tea, coffee, sugar, bread, silk, cotton, wool, linen, paper, leather, oil, fur.

6. Oak, beech, pine, fir, larch, cedar, mahogany, palm, vine, rose, nettle, grass.

7. Mason, carpenter, turner, blacksmith, tailor, shoemaker, hatter, weaver, baker, bookbinder, printer, watchmaker.

8. King, tyrant, warrior, statesman, judge, citizen, subject, neighbour, master, servant, beggar, criminal.

9. Mind, body, life, death, health, sickness, joy, sorrow, sleep, sin, religion, immortality.

10. Friendship, affection, temper, benevolence, wisdom, justice, hope, perseverance, ambition, emulation, remorse, procrastination.

11. Light, heat, cold, snow, wind, rain, dew, steam, sight, feeling, taste, motion.

12. Music, poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, science, literature, astronomy, geography, history, botany, agriculture.

13. Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Australia, France, Russia, England, Scotland, Ireland, London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Rome, Palestine, Jerusalem.

14. Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Joshua, Samuel, Saul, David, Solomon, Elijah, Jonah, Paul, Peter, John.

15. Alfred, Wallace, Bruce, Tell, Peter the Great, Charles XII., Columbus, Cook, Bonaparte, Nelson, Wellington, John Knox, Shakespeare, Milton, Cowper.




A Complex Sentence consists of two or more simple sentences so connected as to form one proposition.

The simple sentences forming a complex sentence are denominated Clauses, and are generally separated by points.

The clauses of a complex sentence are divided into Principal and Secondary.

A Principal Clause is one containing a leading affirmation in a sentence.

A Secondary Clause is one connected more or less with a principal clause^ and modifying or explaining it

A principal clause is generally complete in sense, though standing by itself.

A secondary clause can never stand by itself, but must always be joined to a principal clause.

In the sentence, " The boy reads, that he may acquire knowledge," the first clause is principal, because it contains the leading proposition, and is so constructed that it can stand by itself: the remaining clause is secondary, because it modifies the principal, and does not make sense when standing by itself.

A principal clause does not always express a complete proposition without a secondary; as, The stars are much larger than they appear to be.

A complex sentence must always contain one principal clause: it may sometimes contain more; as, The prices rose and fell; the rose is sweet, but is surrounded with thorns; the rain descended, the floods came, the winds blew and beat upon that house, and it fell, and great was the fall of it.

When clauses are independent of each other, they are said to be co-ordinate.

When they are dependent upon other clauses, they are said to be subordinate.

The principal clauses of a complex sentence are always co-ordinate.

Secondary clauses may be co-ordinate as well as principal clauses.

In the sentence, " The boy reads and studies, that he may acquire knowledge and gain respect," the two first clauses are principal clauses, independent of each other, and therefore co-ordinate: the two last are secondary clauses, dependent on the principal, and therefore subordinate, but at the same time independent of each other, and therefore co-ordinate.

Secondary clauses may be subordinate to one another as well as to principal clauses.

In the sentence, "The boy reads, that he may acquire that knowledge which will be of use to him in his future career," the two last are secondary clauses, subordinate to the first or principal clause, while the last is, at the same time, subordinate to the middle clause.

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