« PreviousContinue »
who was his namesake, was sent' to Delos to watch over the island, where the two deities1 presided, according to some brazen tablets, that Opis and Hecaergus2 had brought from the Hyperboreans; and that he learnt that after3 the soul was released from the body, it departed to the uncertain4 spot, and some dwelling under ground, where is the royal palace of Pluto,5 not less than the hall of Zeus, inasmuch as the earth possesses the middle portion of the world, and the pole (of heaven) is spherical; of which the gods of heaven have obtained by lot one portion of the hemisphere, and the gods below the other, being some of them brothers,6 and others the children of brothers;7 and that the gates before the road to Pluto's domain are fast bound by iron locks and keys; and that the river Acheron receives him, who has opened them, and, after it, Cocytus, both of which it is necessary for him to pass over, and to be led to Minos and Rhadamanthus, '(where is)8 what is called the plain of Truth. [20.] There are they seated as judges to sift each of the corners as to what life he had led, and in what pursuits he had dwelt in the body ;9 and that to tell a falsehood is out of his power. On such then as a kind daemon has breathed during life, these are located in the region of the pious. 10 There without stint the seasons bloom with every kind of produce, and fountains of pure
1 The two deities were Apollo and Artemis.
1 By Opis was meant Artemis, and by Hecaergus, Apollo.
'In lieu of Kari Horreus once proposed to read perch, which I have adopted, confirmed, as it is, by the best MS. V. Fischer however says that Horreus changed his opinion in Miscell. Crit. p. 171.
4 Since a good MS. Z. reads "ASov in lieu of aSr)\ov, perhaps the author wrote' Atfiov avrfKiov, similar to rav aartfiri'AitokXtavi—x'Paov in jEsch. S. Th. 857. Ficinus has " occultum—"
8 In Ficinus it is " Junonis," evidently a literal error for " Plutonis."
'These were Zeus, Poseidon, and Pluto.
'Namely Minos, jEacus, and Rhadamanthus.
*—* I have translated, as if iv had dropt out between 'PaSa/tavOvv and h, and run after cXy&rai. Ficinus has, what the sense requires, "in earn videlicet regionem, qui veritatis campus cognominatur."
1 As the subject of tvifKto9t) is wanting, it is to be supplied, I suspect, by reading iv rif aw/iart r\ tyv%r\ ovaa— For )j ipvxv oiaa might easily have dropt out before \pcvaaadai. Ficinus avoids all the difficulty by omitting fitpiuKt—fffcytart, and rendering " cujusque vitam," as if his MS. read tKatrrov rbv (3iov in lieu of eicaorov, rtva /3iov—
"—" Wolf was the first to remark the poetical colour of this passage; water flow ;10 and every where are meadows made beautiful1 by flowers of varied hues, and places of discussions for philosophers, and theatres of poets, and cyclic choirs,2 and the hearing of music, and elegant3 banquets, and feasts self-furnished, and an unmixed freedom from pain, and a delightful mode of living. Nor is produced there violent cold or heat, but a well-tempered air is diffused around, mixed with the sun's mild beams. There is the seat of honour to those, who have shared in the Mysteries ;4 for they perform together their holy rites even thither.5 How then is there not to you first6 a share in the honour, as being of the family7 of the goddesses?8 And there is a report that Heracles and Dionysus descended to Hades after having previously shared in the Mysteries here; and that they put on 9 a boldness for the journey thither from the Eleusinian (rites).9 [21.] But they, whose life has been passed in a course of evil doings, are driven by the Furies to Erebus and Chaos through Tartarus, where
where it is easy to elicit a distich, probably of Sophocles, 'Evff d(p9ovot fiiv fps irayKapirtp yvai Bpiovat, KaBapuiv 8' itpiovat va/iaTuiv Hijyai: Ficinus too has—" ver seternum—"
1 In lieu of lapiZSpevot, which is not a Greek word, I have translated, as if the author had written itpdiZofitvoi—
: From the juxta-position of Troiijnii', I have taken Kukxioi in the sense of "cyclic." It may however mean "circular"—for Kvkxiuv xopw* is found in Eurip. Helen. 1328.'
3 Instead of ew/jfXq, five good MSS. read i/tfitX^, similar to " jocunda" in Ficinus, which I have adopted; although the author wrote, I suspect, TripeXij —" rich."
4 Compare Soph. Fragm. Inc. 52, dig rpi<7oX/3iot Kilvoi jiporwv, oS ravra SspxGkvTSg reXrj, MoXw<r' sg "Aidov. Toiodt yap fiovoig ixei Zyv torr roTc 5' aXXoifft iravr Oikh Kukci.
5 Correct Greek would require cam, not Kaxuae—in which word lies hid, however, (card; worac. On the box, used at the Mysteries, see Lobeck's Aglaophamus, p. 25, who quotes from Clemens Alex. Cohortat. p. 18, iXafiov Ik xiarrjg—airtBiiiriv tig KaXaBov Kal Ik KaXdBov ttf wonjv.
6 In lieu of irp&Tip one would prefer tiirtp rip, i. e. " if to any one—" For Axiochus was not the first who had a share in the honour.
7 So Fischer understands ytwriry. But as three MSS. read yevr)<rri, and two yiviiriry, little doubt can remain of the truth of Wolf's correction, yt /ivory—
8 I have adopted Wolfs elegant evAvoaoOat, in lieu of evAiaauOai, which Fischer vainly attempts to explain. Ficinus has " suscipere—"
9—9 Although riXtTrjg might perhaps be understood after rig 'EXtvaiviag, yet I should prefer rijg 'EXtvoTvi ayviiag—
is the region of the impious, and the unfilled urns of the daughters of Danaus, and the thirst of Tantalus, 'and the entrails of Tityus, and the uncompleted stone of Sisyphus,
To whom begins again his labour's end.1 There too ' are persons licked round by wild beasts,2 and 'terrified by the torches of the Furies glaring around them ;3 and enduring every kind of ignominious treatment, they are by eternal punishments worn down. This account did I hear from Gobryas; and you, Axiochus, can decide upon it. For carried along myself by reason I know firmly this alone, that the soul is wholly immortal, and that, when it is removed from this spot, it is there4 without pain; so that it must needs be, Axiochus, that, if you have lived piously, you will be happy either below or above.
Axio. I am ashamed, Socrates, to say a word.5 For so far am I from fearing death, that already I feel a desire for it; 6so greatly has this beautiful discourse6 of yours7 persuaded me, as if it were a heavenly one.8 And even now I
1—1 In the Greek lies hid the following dramatic distich—Kai awXayxva Titvov 2t<ru0ou Tclvtivvtoq Hirpoc, ov To. rkpfiar* avBig tpxeral Ttovwv.
* I do not remember to have read elsewhere of persons in Hades being licked round by wild beasts, except in the case of Bacchus, as described by Horace—" Te vidit insons Cerberus—leniter atterens Caudam et recedentis trilingui Ore pedes tetigitque crura"—nor in fact could the act of licking indicate any thing of a dreadful kind. Hence in lieu of irtotXiX" fiufuvoi one would prefer wtpiaWa xaff/iw/iivoie—i. e. with jaws very widely opened. Ficinus avoids the difficulty by his version—" ubi fera; mordaces inseparabiliter corporibus se circumplicant."
*—* The Greek is \aiiiraaiv iTrtpovtaq irvpovptvoi, i. e. " fired continually with torches." But as Stobseus offers daoiv instead of Xafiirdoiv, I have translated, as if the Greek were Sfoi viptXa/nroptvaii irmpo/ievot: for irTvpopivot would be another example of the verb irrvpiaQat, found in § 16, where the best MS. V. reads incorrectly irvpdtis for nrvpetqe. Ficinus, unable to understand satisfactorily the Greek, has given, what I suspect he did not find in his MS., "ubi faces inextinguibiles carnes exurunt."
4 I have translated as if the Greek were not xai, but to balance tic rovSt rov xwpt'ou.
s Ficinus has "ulterius loqui," as if his MS. read, rt tlwtXv irXiov—
*—• The Greek is at present oi5rw /it Kal ovrog—but three MSS. read Ovtu firfv Ko\—and one omits car. Hence the Greek was, I suspect, originally, ovrwc p' ayav KaXdg—
'I have adopted 6 abg, furnished by two MSS., in lieu of 6 simply.
* Three MSS. omit correctly 6 before ovpavicg— One would prefer, however, iiv oiipaviog— Ficinus has " quasi cceleste oraculum."
have a contempt for life, as being about to remove to a better home. For the present then I will cast up quietly with myself what has been said; and at mid-day you will be with me, Socrates.
Soe. I will do as you say. And for a while2 I will go back for a walk to Cynosarges,3 from whence I was sent for hither.
1 In lieu of avaptO/itjaofiat, the best MS. V. reads djrapifyiqiro/jm, which seems to lead to srovr' apiOftqcrofiai— Ficinus has "animadvertam—" Wolf suggests dra/iijpuic?jffo/iai, i. e. "nominabor—"
* In lieu of li, two MSS. read yap. I have translated as if the author wrote riwc—
3 Matthise, as I learn from the Zurich editors, proposed to reject ifi Kvvooapyie. Why, I know not.
INTRODUCTION TO THE ERYXIAS.
Of this dialogue, which Fischer has, on the authority of Suidas, attributed to iEschines, a follower of Socrates, but Boeckh to an unknown writer, five translations have appeared in Latin, one in German, and one in French. But as they have been all made from a printed text, they are in a critical point of view of very little use. And a similar observation is applicable to the notes of the different editors, who have been apparently unwilling to meddle with the text, even when they could scarcely have failed to see it was corrupt. I have therefore been reluctantly compelled to supply partially their omissions, and to attempt to do, what would have come with a better grace from Boeckh.
From the allusion in § 2, to the embassy sent from Sicily to Athens, as recorded by Thucydides in iii. M, Fischer infers that the dialogue is supposed to have taken place about Ol. 88, 2; and as regards the subject of it, that the wise alone are the really wealthy, he refers to Cicero, Paradox 6, and to Iamblichus, Protrept. p. 23, cd. Arcer.