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manship—for many things I pass over—through revolutions1 how great is it driven, while it possesses a pleasure, like that of a state of fever, in its quiverings and palpitations, but a failure, full of pain, and worse than a thousand deaths. Who then living for the mob can be happy? even if he has been favourably received with a gentle buzz, or noisy hubbub, as the plaything of the people, (but afterwards)2 rejected, hissed, fined, put to death, and pitied. 3 Tell me this,3 thou statesman, Axiochus, where died Miltiades? where Themistocles? where Ephialtes? and where recently the ten army-leaders ?4 when I did not put (the question) to the vote; for it did not seem to me a solemn act 5to hold office in union with6 a maddened mob;

the author wrote not oi>x '6\ov—tX«>c, but oi>x virovXov—«dXXoc, similar to miXXoc KaKuiv virovkov in Soph. (Ed. T. 1386, and not cXaov, which neither e'Xieoc nor caXXoc could be said to do, but tyicaXwv: and lastly, not vvvi Si liriicavaiv, which is superfluous before or after SaXirof, but vwi S' kiriicavoav dypovc Kpvog: for thus iiriKavaav aypovq icpvog would be properly opposed to QaXtros aicaipov, and the expression liriKavaav iypovQ Kpiog be similar to " tellus hiscit adusta gelu—" in Ovid.

'In lieu of diivdv, I have translated as if the Greek were SivUv. On the confusion of the two words, see myself on Philoct.

2 The sense requires eir/3aXX6;ufi>oi' o" av—as I have translated, opposed to 7roirwva0tiri xai KporrjBtiri: which Ficinus not understanding has thus translated—" irridetur atque exploditur."

33 In lirfi Toi ye evidently lies hid tiir oiv rouro yt—as I have translated.

* This is supposed to allude to the ten naval officers, for whose condemnation Socrates, in his character of chairman of a public meeting, refused what he had the power to do, to put the question to the vote; as he knew well that they would in the then excited state of the people be put, as six of them subsequently were, to death, for neglecting to take up the dead bodies of the Athenians, who had fallen into the sea, in the naval battle at Arginusee. With regard to the text, two MSS. read irpiii/i/ /SaoiXtie icai <rrparijyoi: of the rest, some omit /Sao-tXtlc xai, and others only/3a(jiXf7c; and while Ficinus has "duces reliqui," Stobeeus offers Trpwijv oi doKa arparriyoi, adopted by Boeckh. But as it is difficult to account for the introduction of [iaoiktig Kal, I suspect that those words are a corruption of j3. woai Xiovai, i. e. "two-footed lions," and that iiiroai Xeovai ought to follow iwypofiriv rm, yv<opi)v, i, e."I did not put the vote to the two-footed lions "—for such might Socrates fairly consider the Athenians, roaring for their prey, just as Clytemnestra is described by ^Ischylus in Agam. 1231, Uttooc Xiaiva. The error is to be referred to the fact that j3 means " two:" as I have shown on the Statesman, p. 250, n. 66, where /3. iroai, i. e. Simroi has been corrupted into vwoaiv.

55 I have translated as if the Greek were dva/iil; apxuv, not ovvtZapxuv, where i? has no meaning. For though iiapxuv is applied to the whereas Theramenes and Callixenus did on the day after introduce secretly fictitious chairmen (of the meeting), and got against the men a vote of death without a trial; and yet did you (Axiochus) lawfully1 defend them and Euryptolemus2 likewise, while thirty thousand were at the general meeting.

[13.] Axio. It is so, Socrates. And from that time I have had enough of the platform,3 and nothing has seemed to me more disagreeable than statesmanship. And this is plain to those who have been engaged in the business. And you indeed speak thus, as taking a view from a look-out; but we, who have made the experiment, know it more accurately. For the mob, my dear Socrates, is a thing ungrateful, satiated with the mere touch, cruel, envious, uneducated, as being made up of a mass of persons brought together, violent (and)4 triflers; while he, who acts the courtesan to it, is more miserable by far.

[14.] Soc. Since then, Axiochus, you lay down the science, which is the most free, as the least to be prayed for amongst the rest, what shall we think of the remaining pursuits? Are they not to be avoided? I once, indeed heard Prodicus saying that death does not exist as regards either the living or those, who have changed their existence.

Aria. How say you, Socrates?

Soc. That as regards the living, it does not exist; while they, who are dead, do not exist; so that neither, as regards you, does it exist; for you are not dead; nor, should you suffer aught, will it exist, as regards you; for you will then not exist. Vain then is the sorrow in Axiochus grieving for

leader in a dance or song, as shown by Eurip. Tro., 148; yet aiv could scarcely be united to it. Fischer indeed asserts that avviZdpxcw means to " gratify "—But he has not been able to prove his assertion, nor could be do it. Wolf has suggested ovvtZaiiaprttv, well aware that avvt£ifX"v would be here out of place.

1 To avoid the absurdity in povosxal—I have translated, as if the Greek were Vo/ji'^wc—Kat — Ficinus omits /lovog entirely.

! I have adopted EuptOTroXe/ioc, suggested by Stephens, and found subsequently in a good MS., and confirmed by Xenophon, H. Gr. i. 7, 8. Ficinus has—" Eriptolemo—" •

3 This is the English idea, answering to the /3>)/»a of the Athenians, cute place to which those went up, who wanted to harangue the people.

4 To obviate the objection started by Stephens, I have translated, as if tai had dropt out between f3iaiwv and QXvapwv. Ficinus omits fiiaiwv.


Axiochus, touching a thing that neither is nor will be; and it is just the same, as if a person were to grieve for Scylla or the Centaur, which, as regards you, do not exist now, nor will they, after your close of life, exist. For what is fearful is so to those, who exist; but to those, who do not exist, how can it be so?

[15.] Axio. These clever things you have said from the talkativeness, which is floating on the surface (of society) just now. For from thence is this idle speaking, which has been cleverly got up for the young men. But the deprivation of the good things of life is what gives me pain, even should you rattle out reasons, Socrates, still more plausible than those just now.1 For the mind, when it is wandering, thinks nothing of fine-spoken words; nor do these touch even its surface, 2 which affect indeed a mere pomp2 and splendour of diction, but are wanting in truth. Now sufferings do not endure sophisms; and upon those things alone, that can reach the soul, rests there any aid.3

[16.] Soc. You are putting together, Axiochus, (words)4 without reason, in bringing the perception of things that are bad as opposed to the deprivation of things that are good, through your forgetting that you are dead.5 For the countersuffering of ill pains him who is deprived of good; but he, who does not exist, does not lay hold even of deprivation. How then should there be a grief for that, which is about to furnish no knowledge of the things that will cause pain?

1 I have adopted rHv apri in lieu of aprt, as suggested by Fischer, who refers to run, yap apri Suvonpa, in Theaetet. p. 165, A.

2a I have translated, as'if the Greek were 8. dWag ptlvavvrti— not d\V tic uivavvrti— For nivti, not aviru, requires the preposition tic. With regard to <i\\uc iro/iir^v, see Ruhnken on Tim. p. 199. Ficinus, apparently unable to understand aviru, has " etsi audit, negligit."

5 In lieu of apxilTai, which is perfectly unintelligible, Hemsterhuis suggested amlrat, of which Wesseling approves on Herodot. iv. 91; and the same alteration is proposed by Segaar in Epistol. ad Valckenaer, p. 19, and in Preef. ad Observat. in S. Luc. p. 9. But it is rejected both by Fischer and Boeckh; for they doubtless knew that atdaOai is a deponent, not a passive, verb. I have therefore translated, as if the Greek were t'tpicsi Ti lirl roig— Ficinus has " solte hoec attendit."

4 Although yap might stand here, yet as avvarrrug requires its object, I have translated, as if the author had written ra prjuara—

5 This seems strangely said to a person who was still alive.


'For had you, Axiochus, at the beginning laid down (with me),1 in some way that there is no perception (to the dead),2 you would not, through your ignorance, have shuddered at death. But now you are turning yourself round,3 while fearing that you shall be deprived of soul, 4 and place a soul round deprivation;4 5and you fear that you shall not have a perception; and yet you imagine that you shall by perception comprehend a perception, that will not exist.5 [17.] 6In addition to their being many and beautiful reasons for the immortality of the soul.6 For a mortal nature would surely not 'have proceeded and been lifted up7 to such a greatness in action, 8 as to despise the violence of superior wild animals, and to pass over seas, and to build cities, and to lay down forms of polity,8 and to look up to heaven and behold the revolutions of the stars, and the courses of the sun and moon, and their eclipses, and rapid return to their former state, and the equality of days, 9 and the two tropical movements, during winter and summer, and the rising and setting of the Pleiades,9

11 I have adopted the correction of Wolf, r>;v ctpx^v yap, £> 'AZtoxe, i/ioi, in lieu of ap\riv yap, w 'A£iox£ — Ficinus has briefly " principio enim nisi sensum quendam poneres—"

2 I have inserted, what is required by the sense, roic Oavovaiv, which might easily have dropt out after aladrtaiv.

1 Such is the literal version of the Greek, vvv Si TrcpiTpeirnc aiavrbv, which I cannot understand. The author wrote, I suspect, vvv 6" itr' airopa rpiirttQ otavrbv— i. e. "but now you are turning yourself to a difficulty—" Ficinus, "pervertis te ipsum—"

*4 Here again I am at a loss, as I cannot perceive how a soul or life can be placed round deprivation. Did the writer mean to say, " and you invest deprivation with existence?" similar to "amission! animam addicis" in Ficinus.

55 Here again I must leave for others to understand, what I cannot, all between the numerals.

s6 Unless I am greatly mistaken, there is a lacuna here ; for the train of thought exhibits a sad want of connexion, which Ficinus supplies by "ex eo quod—"

71 By the aid of the two best MSS. V. and Z., that read roaovet, and of one, that offers roaov Siovg, and of V., that has also 3.v jjparo, I have been able to elicit roaovSt iova av vptro, as I have translated, in lieu of the unintelligible roaov Soiovs ciriparo, found in all the other MSS. Ficinus has "in tantam excellentiam surrexisset—"

"—» With this passage compare Soph. Antig. 332—368.

*—* I have adopted Wolfs certain restoration, who reads Kai. rpo7rdc cirrus xM*^,/oc Kal ^PovCi *ai avarokaQ re Kal Svghq Thjv HXtLaowv: where xai avarokag n xai Svaeig have been brought from the place they previously occupied between aiKrivriQ and tKXei^cic. For not only do and the winds, and the fall of rain, 1 and the ill-fated trailing along of fiery meteors,1 and to lay down on a tablet what the universe is to undergo for ages,2 unless there had been in the soul some 3 breath of divinity,3 through which he possessed the power of thinking upon and knowing subjects of so vast a kind; so that you are not, Axiochus, changing your existence for death, but for immortality; nor will you have a deprivation of good things, but a still purer enjoyment of them; nor pleasures mixed up with a mortal body, but unmixed with every pain. For you will, when released from this prison, depart thither, where all is without trouble, and moanings, and old age, and life is a calm, and with no taste4 of ill, and where in a mild atmosphere of unruffled tranquillity you (will dwell),5 looking round upon Nature, and acting the philosopher not before a mob and a theatre, but in the presence of Truth, blooming around.0

[18.] Axio. You have by your discourse brought me round to a contrary point. For I have no longer a fear of death, but already a desire to say myself, in imitation of the orators, something still more; and for a long time I have been thinking upon things on high, and I will go through the eternal and divine course, since after my weakness I have collected my strength and am become a new man.

[19.] Soc. (Hear too),7 if you are willing, another account which Gobryas related to me—a man of the Magi, (who)8 said that during the expedition of Xerxes, his grandfather,

we thus recover a noun, required to govern TLXuaSmv, but perceive likewise why the Pleiades are introduced here; since, as we learn from Hesiod Epy. 383 and 615, both farmers and sailors were wont to pay attention to the rising and setting of the Pleiades.

11 Ficinus has "jactum praesteris fulgurisque coruscum," and translates irapairrilaodai by "mirifice sisteret—"

! Wolf refers here to the statement of Pliny, that Hipparchus had calculated the eclipses of the sun and moon for 600 years to come.

33 So Horace, " divinae particulam auras."

• I have adopted Matthias's correction, dysvoroQ for ayovog, remembering the expression Kokwv dytvoroQ in Soph. Antig. 590.

a In Kai, which Bekker has incorrectly omitted, with a single and inferior MS., lies hid oUijatiG

• Fischer refers to Cicero de Finib. v. 19, and Augustine de Trin. iv. 2. 'I have adopted ixovaai, supplied by the best MS. V. and Stobaeus.

Ficinus has " Referam—"

• I have translated, as if oc had dropt out between /iayoc and t^ij— Ficinus, to supply the want of connexion, has "Inquit enim—"

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