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what the translators found in the MSS. before them. But such is not the case with Ficinus, who has here, as elsewhere, kept very close to the original, except when he perceived the text to be manifestly corrupt. And a similar observation is applicable to the translation of Hieronymus Wolflus, printed, together with the text and notes, at Basle in 1577, 4, under the title of "Doctrina recte vivendi et moriendi," a fact not known, it would seem, to Cousin, who attributes that work to an anonymous scholar.

With regard to the author of the dialogue, Ficinus attributes it to Xenocrates, either because he found it so assigned in the MS. before him, or because he knew that the follower of Plato had written a treatise " On Death," as recorded by Diogenes Laert. iv. 12. By others the author was supposed to be JEschines, the follower of Socrates. But this idea was given up, when it was ascertained that none of the passages quoted by Athenaeus and Pollux, from the Axiochus of iEschines, were to be found in the existing dialogue of that name.

But whatever uncertainty may exist as to the author, it is evident from § 8, p. 43, n. ', as Wolf was the first to remark, that it was written at the time, when the successors of Plato occupied the Academy, and those of Aristotle the Lyceum, at Athens.




[1.] Soc. When I had gone out on the road to Cyrus- arges,1 and had arrived at the Hissus, the voice of some one reached me, calling out, "Socrates, Socrates." And when on turning towards (the sound) I looked round to see from whence it might be, I beheld Clinias, the son of Axiochus, running towards the fountain Callirrhoe, together with Damon the musician, and Charmides, the son of Glaucon. Of these,2 one was the other's music-master, and the other was, from a feeling of friendship, at once the loving and beloved. I determined therefore to give up the direct road, and to meet them, that we might come together in the easiest manner. [2.] And Clinias, with tears in his eyes, said—Now, Socrates, is the time for you to exhibit the wisdom ever bruited by you.3 For my father has at some sudden season4 become

1 This was a place, where there was a temple dedicated to Hercules, at which illegitimate children were registered, who were under the protection of the god, who was himself the illegitimate son of Zeus.

'I have adopted Wolfs correction, abroiv, confirmed in part by the best MS. V., which has abrCiv, while all the rest have avrif. It is however uncertain, as remarked by Wolf, which was the lover, and which the loved, Clinias or Charmides.

■ As Socrates was never known to proclaim his wisdom, but rather the want of it, we must either omit Trpdc with Stephens, or read 7rtpi with Wolf, similar to " de te " in the version of Agricola.

4 In lieu of upag, to which Stephens was the first to object, as being improperly united to atyviSiov, Fischer would read avpQopag, which th6 powerless, and is at the end of life, and with pain supports the idea of dissolution; although at a former period he used to ridicule those, who were afraid of the bugbear of death, and to rebuke them mildly. Come then, and console him as you are wont, in order that 1 he may without a groan proceed on the road of fate,1 and that, a together with the remaining acts of piety, this too may be done by me.2 In no moderate matter, Clinias, (said I,) shall you be disappointed in me; especially as you are inviting me to do a holy act. Let us then make haste; for if such is the state of affairs, there is a need of haste.

Clin. On merely seeing you, Socrates, he will rally; for often has he been on his legs again after a (serious) symptom.3

[3.] Soc. When we had traversed rather quickly the road along the wall,4 at the Itonian gates 5—for he dwells near there, close to the pillar of the Amazon 6—we came upon him, when he had already7 recovered his senses, and 8 his body some8

Zurich editors seem disposed to adopt. I should prefer appwcriac, "weakness," or rivog voaov $opoc, " attack of some disorder."

11 The words between the numerals are omitted by Ficinus.

*—* I confess I hardly understand the words between the numerals; nor could Ficinus; whose version is, "unaque cum aliis pium opus exequere," as if his MS. read icai iijia oiv Totq dAAoic 'iva cot Tovto

* Although avpTrTwpa is elsewhere any symptom, yet here it evidently means " a serious one;" unless it be said that Saivov has dropt out before avaatyrikai, as ec has between •ycyoj/e and (Tu/uirT-ti/mroc: for cac is thus united to voawv, and Kukhv with avao<(iaX\iiv, in the passages quoted by H. Steph. in Thess. L. Gr. Ficinus has merely "ut quodammodo resipisceret."

4 In lieu of fyijxev raig, Matthiffi in Gr. Gr. would read i/uv Iv rale— He should have retained however ^ei/itv, as I have done in the translation.

8 By the Itonian gates are probably meant those, near to which Athene had perhaps a shrine, and was worshipped there under the name of Itonia; and as she had the same appellation at Coronea in Boeotia, the gates, I suspect, at Athens were placed across the road that led from thence to the town in Bceotia. Ficinus has "per Itonios agros." An unknown critic has suggested rrjc 'Iruviag. The reading StTuvvfiiats, found in four MSS., is to be referred to the fact stated by Steph. Byz., that the town in Thessaly called 'itwv, had likewise the name of Siniv.

* The Amazon was Antiop£, as may be inferred from Pausanias i. 2.

7 The word a^j), which properly means " the touch of the hand," is applied to the other senses, likewise, as shown by Hesych. and said, in 'Apr), and Pollux ii. 236. Correctly then has Cornarius, "collectis jam sensibus—■"

88 Instead of Tip Oh/part, the best MS. V. has rd aw/ia, which leads to rb aSifia n, as I have translated.

strength, although his mind was weak, and he stood greatly in need of consolation ; and frequently did 'he raise himself up,1 and give vent to moans, together with the shedding of tears, and the noisy beating of his hands. On beholding him, Why is this, Axiochus? said I. Where are your former boastings and frequent praises of virtue, and your boldness not to be broken down?2 since, like a cowardly combatant, you have exhibited yourself of noble bearing in the place of exercise, but have failed in the fight. Will not you, a man of so long a life, and the hearer of (the finest)3 reasonings, and, if nothing else, at least an Athenian, after surveying 4 nature consider that this is surely a common (saying),5 and bruited amongst all, that life is a kind of sojourn (upon earth) ;6 and that we must pass through it in a reasonable and good-tempered manner, and take our departure, only not singing paeans7 on the road to fate; while to conduct yourself in so cowardly a manner, and to be torn with difficulty from existence, is to exhibit, like a child, a period of life not over-wise.8

Axio. This, Socrates, is true; and you appear to me to

1—* Such seems to be the meaning of avaQepoptvov here. Hence Cornarius, "ut qui ssepe se attolleret;" but Ficinus, "respirantem—"

* In lieu of apptjrov, Stephens was the first to suggest dpprjKrov, adopted by Boeckh. To this passage however Ruhnken refers the gl. in Timieus, Apparov iaxvpbv, arfpedv.

3 I have translated as if KaWiaTwv has dropt out between «ai and


4 I have with Boeckh adopted irpuaKtppivos, suggested by Horreus, in lieu of jrepieirrf/i/ieviKC—

5 Although ttov constantly follows tfi}, yet here it seems to conceal Iwog, as I have translated, similar to " sententiam " in Ficinus. The sentiment emanated from the school of Pythagoras. At least Stobaeus, in cvi. p. 573, Gem., quotes from Hipparchus the Pythagorean, oi ovSpoiiroi—iv rtp fiiif oiovti Tiva irapttnir)n'iav iroirioovvTai. See too Marc. Antonin. ii. 17, 'O jSioc It TroXe/iof cat gcrov 'wtliiiiia, which seems to be a verse of Menander. Cicero De Senect. § 23, "ex vita ita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio."

* I have added " upon earth," what the sense seems to require.

7 Wolf quotes opportunely from Cicero Tusc. i. " Si quid tale accident —ut exeamus e vita, laeti et agentes gratias pareamus." Ficinus omits fiovov oix't iraiavitovTic. For those words, consisting of twenty-one letters, made up one line of the MS., from which his own was transcribed.

* So Fischer translates iripippovoiaav. But such a sense would be in correct Greek rrtpi'^pov' ovoav. For vepiippovovaav is properly "despising." It means however simply "to think upon " in Aristoph. Ne0. 226, irepuppovd T'ov f/Xiov.

speak correctly. And yet I know not how, when I am at the very point of what is dreadful, those powerful and very clever reasonings unconsciously fall away,1 and are held in no honour; while in their stead a fear lays hold of me, tearing my mind in various ways, if I am to be deprived of this light here, and of the good things (of life),2 and to lie rotting, wherever3 it may be, unseen and unheard of,4 after passing into worms and nondescript creatures.5

[4.] Soc. Through your own ignorance,6 Axiochus, you are combining sensation with the want of sensation; and you are acting and speaking in a manner at variance with yourself; and you do not consider that you are at one and the same time lamenting your want of sensation, and pained at the idea of your rotting away, and of being deprived of what is pleasant, as if you are to die and live in another state,7 and not to pass8 into insensibility complete, and the same as that before you were born. As then none of the mischief during the political period of Draco and Clisthenes pertained to yourself—for you, to whom it might have pertained, did not exist

1 I have translated as if the Greek were vireiciriirToviri, not vrticirriovai. For Myst is not elsewhere, I suspect, united thus in Greek to trviovai, although we speak in English of " words that breathe." Ficinus has "clanculum evanescunt."

2 Faehse, perceiving that something was wanting here, proposed to read TiZvSt ayaBuv, answering to TovSt rov 0wr6c—But the good things could not be pointed out, as the light could. Hence I have translated as if fiiov had dropt out after car —

* I have adopted 077-1} Jtjirore, from the best MS. V., in lieu of owot. For Ojtoi, an adverb of motion, could not be united to KHoopai, a verb of rest. With the whole passage compare the speech of Claudio in Shakspeare's Measure for Measure, act iii. sc. 1, "Ay, but to die," &c.

4 In lieu of aytvoroQ Stephens was the first to edit airvaroQ, remembering no doubt the expression in Horn. Od. i. 242, "Ojt£r aterot, aViMrj-oe —where Hesych. explains Uxvotoq by avijicoos

5 The word Kv<iSa\a seems strangely introduced here. For it is applied rather to the larger animals than the smaller; although Hesychius explains Kvtbdakov by ?<Dov fiixgov, where Heinsius refers to this very passage. Ficinus has " feras—"

1 I have omitted avtirikoyioriaQ, which is quite superfluous after irapa rriv avtiriaraaiav, and has evidently come from § 16.

7 I have translated as if the Greek were ei's irepoZotav, not tie trtpov tray, which is without regimen. Ficinus has " in aliam vitam transiturus," in lieu of airoBavovfitvoz.

8 The best MS. offers iMTa(3a\wv, in lieu of /UTapaWoiv, as Wolf wished to read, similar to " migratus " in Ficinus.

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