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what statesmen speak in public assemblies, and is called political; and there is another division of speeches, such as orators write and bring forward as a display, for the purpose of praise, or blame, or accusation. Now this kind is the oratorical. And there is a third division, when private persons converse with each other. Now this is called the private kind. And there is another division, when persons, by putting questions and giving answers to the questioners, converse in a brief manner. Now this is called the dialectical. The fifth division is, when artists converse with each other about their own art. Now this is called artistical. Of speeches then there is the political, the oratorical, the private, the dialectical, and the artistical.
[88.] Musical science is divided into three kinds: one is by the mouth alone, such as singing; the second by means of the mouth and hands, such as playing on, and singing to, the harp; the third is by means of the hands alone, such as harpplaying. Of musical science, then there is one kind by the mouth alone; another, by the mouth and hands; and another, by the hands.
[89.]1 Nobility2 of birth is divided into four kinds: one is, when the ancestors were 3 persons of a beautiful (body) and of a fine (mind),3 4and just4 persons say that their descendants are nobly born; another is, when the ancestors possessed power and were rulers, the descendants of these likewise persons call nobly born; and another, when the ancestors obtained a name, for instance, from generalship, (or)5 contests, 6crowned with garlands,6 the descendants of these likewise we call nobly born; and there is another kind, when a man is himself of a noble soul '[and of a great soul].7 And this man persons say is nobly born; and indeed of nobility of
1 This section begins in Menage's ed. with aXKo tWoc— a little below.
* Plato no where, says Aldobrandinus, touches upon these different kinds of noble birth.
'—' Such is the proper translation of icaXoi Kal ayafloi.
*—4 As there is no allusion to the Kal tiiicaioi in the subsequent summary, those words ought to be omitted, unless it be said that they are included in the ^Triaicftc.
5 I have introduced i, required by the sense.
•—• By these were meant the conquerors at any of the four public games in Greece.
'—' The words Kal (or q) fieya\<yipvx<>s are evidently an explanation of
birth this is the best.1 Of nobility of birth then there is one kind derived from ancestors of probity; another from those in power; another from those in great repute; and another from a person's own greatness of soul.2
[89.]3 Beauty is divided into three4 kinds; one is that, which is a subject of praise, as the beauty of form, (perceived) by the sight; another, as an object of utility, as any instrument or dwelling, and such like things, beautiful in respect to their use; and things, which, as regards laws and pursuits, and such like, are beautiful on the ground of a benefit. Of beauty then there is one kind on the score of praise; another, on that of utility; and another, on that of benefit.
[90.] The soul is divided into three5 parts; for one part is rational; another, concupiscible; and another, irascible. Of these the rational is the cause of consulting, and calculating, and reflecting, and of all such like acts; the concupiscible part of the soul is the cause of desiring to eat, and of having sexual intercourse, and of such like acts; and the irascible part is the cause of feeling boldness, and joy, and sorrow, and anger. Of the soul then there is one part, rational; another, concupiscible; and another, irascible.
[91.]6 Of perfect virtue there are four7 kinds; one, prudence; another, justice; the third, fortitude; the fourth, temperance. Of these, prudence is the cause of doing things correctly; justice, of acting justly in our intercourse and dealings with (each other); fortitude, of not being out of our wits8 in dangers and things of dread, but remaining (in them); and temperance, of mastering our desires, and of not being
1 Menage aptly compares Juvenal's "Nobilitas sola est atque unica nrtus."
1 As the Ka\oKtfya9ia belongs to the first kind of nobly-born, while the last is described as ytvvaSac tom ^iv%i\v, it is evident the author wrote luyaXorpvxias— what I have translated: while Ttjg KakoKfyaOiaQ should be inserted before irpoyovtav i-jruiKuv—
'This section is united in Menage's ed. to the preceding.
'See § 79, n.'—'.
1 On these three parts see Rep. ix. p. 571, D., and 580, E. 'This section begins in Menage's ed. with Tovtwv 17 0p6vjj<nc, a little below.
, 1 These four kinds are called the cardinal virtues. See at Menei. § 20, n.3l.
The Greek is HiaraaBai voiiiv: where Emper would omit iroietv. He should have suggested rather airoyvoii}— " through despondency."
the slave of any pleasure, and of living orderly. Of virtue then there is one kind, prudence; another, justice; a third, fortitude; a fourth, temperance.
[92.]1 Ruling power is divided inio five kinds; one, according to law; one, according to nature; and one, according to custom; a fourth, according to family; and a fifth, according to violence. The rulers then in states, when they have been chosen by the citizens, rule according to law. They, who rule according to nature, not only amongst men, but animals likewise, are the males; for the males for the most part rule every where the females. The rule according to custom is of such a kind, as boy-leaders have over children, and teachers over their disciples.2 The rule according to family is of such a kind, as the kings at Lacedoemon3 possess; 'for the kingly power comes from a certain family;4 and after the same manner persons bear sway in Macedonia; for there the kingly power is appointed from a family. But if persons rule over unwilling 5 citizens by violence, or over willing by fraud,5 a rule of this kind is said to be according to violence. Of rule then there is one kind according to law; another, according to nature; another, according to family; and another, according to violence.
[93.] Of oratory there are six kinds. For when (speakers) bid (a state)6 to make war against, or alliance with, any one, such a kind is called a drawing-on; but when they require it not to make war or an alliance, but to keep quiet, such a kind is a drawing-off. The third kind of oratory is, when a person says he has been injured by some one, and shows such a one to have been the cause of many evils. Now this kind is called an accusation. The fourth kind of oratory is called a defence, when a person shows he has injured no one,7 nor
1 This section begins in Menage's ed. a little below, with ol piv ovv— 'In Greek Twv tpoirdivTuv, literally, "those who go them." But Hesych. has "toiT-ijrqc/ /iaflijrqc. 3 See at § 82, n. \
*—* The words between the numerals are perfectly unnecessary.
5—5 Such is evidently what the balance of the sentence requires. Hence I have translated, as if it Ikovtwv had dropt out after Cucovtuv. For thus axovmv would refer to fiiaaapivoi, and Ikovtuiv to irapaKpovtrd^ievoi.
8 I have introduced "a state," required by the sense and syntax, especially as irokiv might easily have been lost before vokipiiv. 'I have translated, as if the Greek were firiSkv'— not pti$iv—
done any thing out of the way. Now this kind persons call a defence. The fifth kind of oratory is, when one shows a person to be of a beautiful (body) and of fine (mind). Now this kind is called a praising. The sixth kind, is when one shows a person to be ill-favoured (in body and mind). Now this is called a blaming. There are then of oratory one kind, 'a praising; another, a blaming; another, a drawing-on; another, a drawing-off; another, an accusation; and another, a defence.1
[94.]s To speak correctly is divided into four kinds; one is, to speak what is requisite; and one, to speak how much is requisite; the third, to speak to whom it is requisite; and the fourth, to speak when it is requisite. 3 As to what is requisite, it is meet3 to speak, what is about to benefit the speaker and hearer. As to how much is requisite, to speak neither more nor less than what is sufficient. As to whom it is requisite to speak, if (a person) addresses his elders in error,4 it is meet to address fitting language (to them) as (being) older; but if younger persons, it is meet to address fitting (language to them) as being younger. 5 As to when it is requisite, it is meet5 to speak neither before nor after 6(it is fitting);6 or else 'that he will be in error and speak ill.7
[95.]8 Kindness is divided into four (forms). For (it is shown) either in purse, or person, or by science, or words. In purse, when a person, 9being in easy circumstances,9 assists
1 In this summary the different kinds are strangely inverted.
'This section begins in Menage's ed. with irtfiirrov tllos, a little above.
C- 3 I have translated, as if the Greek were & fiiv ovv III, Sii Xiyttv— not S )Uv ovv ht \-iyuv—
4 Meric Casaubon, with whom Menage agrees, would expunge apapnvovrtxQ. But Menage says it is defended by Bochart, who refers to
Chrysostom's Homily on Timotheus — ITp6(r/3i>rspip /iij ijriirXqJpc
aXX toaavii irpoq trarkpa irpootv£x&tir}Q apapTovra, o'vrta cai irpoQ licct*»» ItaXiyov. At all events he has been lost after afiapravovrae—
s—* The Greek is at present irijvi'ico ii \iyeiv Ian— It was originally tvfaa U &t, Xcytiv ian— what I have translated.
'—* I have translated, as if oi i'ty had dropt out before ti me —
'—' Such is the literal version of the Greek, But as- Stephens makes mention of a various reading, Ovk 6p0u>c tptiv in lieu of icai fcacwc tptiv, Perhaps the author wrote diafiapTtio-eaBai Utlvov opfuig tpeic—i. e. " you wi" correctly say that he will be in error."
1 This section begins in Menage's ed. with ri> Si 7rp6c ovg, a little below.
'—9 I have adopted Casaubon's eiwopijoaQ in lieu of eiwopijirat.
a party begging money; in person parties act kindly towards each other, when, being present, they assist those, who are being beaten; while they, who give instruction, and medicine, and teach any good thing, benefit by their science; but when one goes to a court of justice, and assists another, and makes a proper speech in his behalf, he does a kind act by words. Of kindness then there is one form in purse; another in person; another by science; and another by words.
[96.]1 The end of things is divided (by him) into four kinds. Things have an end according to law, when a decree is proposed and a law ratifies it. Things have an end according to nature, (such as) a day, and a year, and the seasons. Things have an end according to art, as house-building; for a person puts the finish to a dwelling; and as ship-building, for 2(a person puts the finish to)2 vessels. There is an end to things according to accident; when they turn out in a different manner, and not as one fancies. There is then an end of things according to law, and nature, and art, and accident.
[97.]s Power is divided into three kinds; one, when4 we are able, by the thinking faculty, to calculate and reflect; another, (when) by the body, for instance, to walk, and to give, and receive, and (to do) such like acts; a third, when5 we are able by the multitude of soldiers and wealth (to rule) ;6 from whence he, who has much power, is called a king; but the fourth is a division of power, 7 in suffering and doing well and ill ;7 for instance, we are able to be in bad health, 8 and to be instructed, and to be in good health, and all such like things.8 Of power then there is one kind, in the thinking
1 This section begins in Menage's ed. with or Si vaiSivovrti, a little above.
1—2 I have supplied the words requisite for the sense.
5 This section begins in Menage's ed. with Kara rvxyv, a little above.
'I have translated, as if the Greek were ore, not o—
s Here again I have substituted ore for 8—
* The train of ideas evidently shows that /3a<n\evtiv, or something • similar, has dropt out after xgrjaaruiv—
7—' I have adopted the correction of Menage, irdaxfv Kai iroutv cat KOKlic.
s—* The words between the numerals ought to be thus arranged and read in the Greek—Kai vyulg yivtadai Kai iraiStvtadai ev Kai rdvavria, Kai rd roiavra, instead of Kai iraiiivia9ai Kai vyuiQ yivtoBai xai iravra rd roiavra.