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into them; and that their elements are 1 the triangle, whose sides are longer, one than the other, and that, whose two sides are equal1 [76.] (He says) then that the principles and causes are the two mentioned, of which the pattern is god and matter; which (last) is of necessity without form, as is the case with the rest of recipients; and that the cause of this proceeds from necessity; for2 (the mind) by receiving somehow ideas produces existences; and through an inequality of power it is moved; and being moved it moves in return the things moved by that power; and (he says) that these were moved formerly without reason and order; but, when they began to constitute the world out of what they received from the deity, they were moved3 symmetrically and orderly. [77.] For (he says) there were two causes even before the creation of heaven, and a third, generation; but not clear, and only vestiges,4 and without order; but, when the world had been created, they too received order; and that heaven was created out of all existing bodies. And it seems to him that the deity, like the soul, is incorporeal;5 for thus he is especially non-receptive of corruption and suffering. And he lays down, as before stated, ideas, as the causes and principles of things being constituted by nature such as they are.

[78.] On the subject of good and evil he said thus, —that the aim should be6 to become like the deity; that virtue is self-sufficient for happiness; but that it wants, as instruments, the superfluities connected with the body, namely, strength, health, a good state of the senses, and the like; and of ex

'—1 See Tim. p. 54, A.

1 The Greek is fi£\6fi€vov yap 7rwc Tclq IctaQ ywqv rag oiiciag, where, since there is nothing to which fiexofievov can be referred, I have translated as if vovv had dropt out after ytvvav— In Tim. p. 52, D., the expression is, rrfv yevvrjGEUiz riOrivr/vSta To bfioLug Svv&fiecjv fii}T 'wopporriav kfiirlinrXaoBai<reieo9ai fiiv vv Ikuvuiv avrrjv, Kivovfitvtiv St av naKtv iictiva aeUtv*

'I have adopted KiviiaOat, furnished by one MS., in lieu of ytviaOai.

'Compare Timaeus, p. 53, B., i%vr\ p-tv ixovra avruiv drra

s Although Cicero, de Nat. Deon i. 12, says, " sine corpora ullo Deum (Plato) vult esse, ut Graeci dicunt aoiifiarov" yet I do not remember where the philosopher has so expressed himself.

'I have translated, as if the Greek were rtXoc jitv dtlv dvai, not riXoj ffv elvai— With regard to the sentiment, compare Thesetet. p. 247, A. § 84, where Heindorf quotes from Themist. Or. xiv. p. 330, D., fktiiiv aKKo <pi\oao<pia it 6jUotu><7ic Cara To Svvarbv hi"

ternals, such as, wealth, good birth, and reputation; but that the wise would be, nevertheless, happy, even if those things were not present. And (he says) that a person should be a public man,1 and marry,2 and not transgress the laws laid down; and should legislate from events, as they arise, for his country, unless he sees that affairs are in the exceeding corruption3 of the people perfectly 4invincible to a person in a state of doubt.4

[79.] He thinks too that the gods look upon the affairs of men ;5 and that there are demons.8

And he first showed that the 7 idea of what is beautiful is close upon what is laudable, and rational, and useful, and becoming, and fitting ;7 all of which are close upon what follows nature, and is confessed (to do so).

He has conversed likewise on the correct imposition of names,8 so that (he seems)9 to have been the first to put together the science of correctly 10 answering and questioning10 by using it in an opportune11 manner in his dialogues.12

He considered, moreover, justice to be a law of god,13 as being more powerful to turn persons14 to acting justly, lest, like15 evil-doers, they suffer punishments, even after death;16

I Aldobrandinus refers to Rep. vii. p. 519, C.

! This is laid down in the Laws, vi. p. 768, B.

3 I have adopted Casaubon's correction, Sia$8opif, in lieu of Stcupopf.

44 Casaubon was the first to see an error in tvirapahTjra, but failed to correct it by reading an-apainjra. I have translated, as if the Greek were airoptp arjrTijTa

51 6 Aldobrandinus refers to the Laws, x. p. 899, D., and the Banquet, p. 202, E.

'—7 This is the whole subject matter of the Hipp. Maj.

* See the Cratylus.

* I have translated, as if the Greek were wore Sokciv, not u<rre (cai— Casaubon would elicit doicuv avurrjaai from Siamiarijaai

10—w Instead of this absurd vartpov wportpov, the sense evidently requires ipuirqLv Kal a-KOKpivtodai

II In lieu of Karcucripwc, which I cannot understand, I suspect the author wrote KaraKaipiuiQ, what I have translated.

12 The words iv Si (or ye) rote SiaXoyotc evidently belong, as I have translated, to the preceding, not the following, period.

13 This doctrine is not, as far as I remember, laid down distinctly in Plato; although it may be inferred from the first book of the Laws.

14 In lieu of irparruv "iva fir), C. F. Hermann has suggested irpaT-tiv Tiva, pr)— which has led myself to rivdc, /iti)—

15 I have translated, as if the Greek were a: icaicoCp-yoi, not of coicoiipyoi, where the article is without meaning. Ia See Gorgias, p. 523, B.

from whence he was considered by some to be rather inclined to fables, by his mixing up accounts of this kind with his writings, in order that, through the uncertainty of the manner, in which matters stand after death, persons may thus be restrained from acts of injustice. These then were his favourite notions.

[80.] 1 And he divided, says Aristotle,2 things in this manner. Of the good some relate to the soul, some to the body, and some are externals. For example, justice, prudence, fortitude, and temperance, and things of this kind relate to the soul; but beauty, and a good habit, and health, to the body; but friends, and the happiness of one's country, and wealth, are amongst externals. [81.] 3 Of good things then there are three kinds; some relating to the soul, some to the body, and some (are) external.3 Of friendship there are three kinds; one natural, another social, and another hospitable. Now by natural we mean that, which parents feel towards their offspring, and relations towards each other; and in this other animals likewise have a share; by social that, which is produced from habitual intercourse, and not at all connected by family-ties, such as that between Pylades and Orestes; but the friendship from hospitality is that from a meeting together, and carried on by means of writings4 to strangers. Of friendship then there is the natural, the social, and hospitable. But some add a fourth, the amorous. .

[82.] Of a political state there are five kinds;5 one is democratical; another, aristocratical; a third, oligarchical; a fourth, regal; (and) a fifth, tyrannical. The democratical exists in states, when the people rule, and choose through

'This section begins in Menage's ed. with odtv xai—a little above.

"This analysis of the doctrines of Plato is not, says Aldobrandinus, to be found in the extant writings of Aristotle; nor do I think it ever was. The author was, perhaps, the Plato mentioned in § 109, as iiaBrirrig 'ApicrroTtXovg, or some other Peripatetic. And hence I would read here Qrjaiv air1 'ApuTTOT&Xovg Tiq— or simply $i\aiv 6 'Apiffro&voQ

33 A similar summary of the preceding account is found through the whole of the subsequent analysis; and as it generally follows the order of the subjects, wherever that order is not preserved, there is reason to believe that some error has crept into the text, as will be duly pointed out in the Notes.

* By writings are meant such as were put upon the so-called <sip{}o\ov, on which see my note on Philoct. 404.

3 See Rep. viii. p. 540, A.; ix. 580, B.

itself magistracies and laws. 1 The aristocratical is, when neither the rich, nor the poor, nor persons in repute, rule, but when the best possess power in the state.1 Oligarchy is, when magistracies are elected from persons of property; for the rich are fewer than the poor. Of regal power there is one kind according to law, and another according to family; as at Carthage it is according to law; for that is a citizenstate; but at Lacedaemon and Macedonia2 it is according to family; for they make a kingly power from a certain family. But a tyranny is, when persons, 3 after being cheated or forced,3 are ruled over by some one. Of a political state then there is the form of a democracy, an aristocracy, an oligarchy, a kingly rule, and a tyranny.

[83.]4 Of justice there are three kinds ; 5one relating to the gods, another to men, and another to the departed. For they, who sacrifice according to the laws, and have a regard for holy things, it is plain, act piously towards the gods; and they, who pay debts and restore deposits, act justly towards men; while they, who have a regard for monuments,5 it is plain, (act justly)6 towards the departed. Of justice then there is a kind relating to the gods, another to men, and another to the departed.

[84.] Of sciences there are three kinds; 'one relating to the power to do something, another to make something, and another to speculate on something.7 For house-building and ship-building are sciences that make something; for one can see the work done; but the sciences of statesmanship, and of playing on the pipe or harp, and such like, are those that do something;8for it is not possible to see any thing that has been

11 A similar definition of Aristocracy in the Menexenus, § 8. a Lacedsemon and Macedonia are similarly united in % 92. *—* Of a people being cheated or forced into the acceptance of regal power recent events in a neighbouring country afford a curious proof.

* This section begins in Menage's ed. a little before, at ?) <5e iv AamSalfiovi

51 Of these three kinds the two first are mentioned in Euthyph. p. 12, E., and the last alluded to in the Laws, xii. p. S58, D., as remarked by Aldobrandinus.

• I have supplied the ellipse in the Greek.

7—' Of these three kinds the first and third are mentioned in the Statesman, p. 259, C. and the second in Soph. p. 219, B., not in Thestet., as stated by Aldobrandinus.

88 I have translated, as if Qearbv, which is superfluous after ii&v,

done by them; but when they are doing something, it is to be seen.8 For one is playing the pipe, another the harp, and another the part of a statesman. But the sciences of geometry, harmony, and astrology1 are speculative; for they neither do any thing, nor make any thing; but one speculates, as a geometrician, how lines are with respect to each other; another, as a harmonist, (speculates) on sounds; and the other, as an astrologer, on the stars and the world. 2 Of sciences then some are speculative, others relating to doing, and others to making.2

[85.] Of medical science, there are five kinds ;3 the pharmaceutic, the chirurgic,4 the dietetic, the nosognomic, and the boethetic. The pharmaceutic cures illness by drugs; the chirurgic restores health by cutting and burning; the dietetic produces a change in disorders by a change of diet; the nosognomic by knowing the characters of the disease; and the boethetic, by assisting on the instant, gives a relief from pain. Of the medical science then there is the pharmaceutic, the chirurgic, the dietetic, 5 the boethetic, and the nosegnomic.5

[86.] Of law there are two divisions; one written, the other unwritten. That, by which we act the statesman in cities, is the written; but that, which exists according to custom, is called the unwritten. For instance, there is no law to prevent our going naked to the public place of meeting, or putting on female attire; and yet we do not do such acts, through being prevented by an unwritten law. Of law then there is the written and the unwritten.

[87.] 6 Speech is divided into five7 kinds; of which one is

were placed after aW, ore irparTavei n, for so we must read in lieu of dXXa TTQarrovai ri—

1 By astrology is meant what is now called astronomy.

*—5 In this summary the order is inverted by the speculative being placed first instead of last.

3 Of these five kinds only the first four are alluded to in Rep. iii. p. 406, D., as remarked by Aldobrandinus.

* The English "surgeon " is a corruption of the Greek xupovpyoQ.

*—* Here again the order in the summary is neglected by placing the boethetic before the nosognomic

• This section begins in Menage's ed. with iripa Si, just afterwards.

Of these five kinds three are spoken of in Phajdr. p. 258, D., and p. 272, F., and the dialectic in Rep. vii. p. 533—537, as remarked by Aldobrandinus.

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