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The double (line) > is used for the fixed opinions and favourite views of Plato.

The X with dots around, X, for extracts and 'pretty pieces of writing.1

The doubled (line) with dots around, for corrections of some kind.

The spit with dots around, 2 for the rejections of what is silly.4

The antisigma3 with dots around, 4for the two uses and change in the position of the writings.4

The thunderbolt ,J, for the leading to philosophy.

The asterisk * for the agreement in fixed opinions.

The spit — for the rejection (of matter).

Such are the marks, and so many the books, which, says Antigonus in his work " On Zeno," when recently published, if a person wished 5 to read and know thoroughly,5 he paid to their owners for the hire of them.

[67.] His favourite notions were these. He said that the soul was immortal, and invested itself with many bodies,6 and that its principle was in 7 arithmetic, but that of the body in geometry;7 and he defined it as the form of a spirit standing 8 altogether apart ;8 and that it is self-moved ;9 and is tripartite; 10for that its rational portion is seated about the head; its irascible about the heart; and its concupiscible about the

1—' Such, I presume, is the sense here of raXXiypa^i'ac: which elsewhere means the mechanical act of writing beautifully.

'—* Unable to understand jrpoc T&q Eieguouc dOerijo-Mc, I have translated, as if the Greek were irpbg rdc Tov eUawv dOtTrjtrtig.

3 The mark ) is called anti-sigma, because it is the contrary to (; for so that letter was sometimes written of old.

44 Such is the literal version of the Greek 7rp6c rdc 67rrdc XP'I"1^ Kui fUTaBitmc Ttov ypaipSiv— which I must leave for others to understand, or correct, if they can.

51 Instead of Siayvwvai, Casaubon proposed to read avayvwvtu, found subsequently in a Paris MS., as Menage testifies. I have translated, as if the author had written avayvuivai Kai Siayv&vai.

"This is stated in Phsedon, p. 87, B.

77 I do not remember where Plato thus describes the soul and body.

88 In the words Tov iravrr) SuaT&Tog— there is probably a lacuna to be thus supplied — roC diro iravrbg iravrri Suotwtos, i. e. " standing apart from every thing on every side."

* This is the leading doctrine, on which the immortality of the soul is based in the Phsedon. .

u—1» gee Rgp, p, 58o> Di; which Cicero in Tuscul. i. had in mind.

navel and liver;10 [68.] and that (proceeding)1 from the middle 2it embraces entirely (as) in a circle the body; and that it is composed of the elements; and that, divided according to harmonic intervals, it forms two circles united together; of which the inner circle, being divided into six parts, makes seven circles in all; and that this lies along a diameter towards the left from within; but the outer along a side towards the right; on which account it rules, as being one; for the other is divided from within ;2 and that one circle belongs to the same, and the others to the different; (and he asserts) that this 3 movement is of the soul, but that of the Universe, and the carrying round of the planets; [69.] and that (the soul),4 after the division had thus taken place from the middle and was fitted to it at the extremes, knows the things that exist, and adjusts them, through its possessing in itself the elements according to harmony: and that opinion is produced, according to the circle of the different proceeding correctly,5 but knowledge, according to that of the same. And he showed that of all existing things there are two principles, god, which he calls likewise mind and cause, and matter;° but that matter is without form and boundless,7 from which are produced coalitions; and that, being formerly moved in no order, it

1 I have translated, as if iovaav had dropt out after fitaov55 Aldobrandimis has shown that all this is to be referred to the soul of the world, as delineated in the Timseus; and he might have added, that much of this abridgment, taken by itself, is a mass of unmeaning words; for the writer had evidently only a vague idea of what Plato himself has not expressed in the most intelligible manner.

* I have translated, as if the Greek were rijv, not rbv, which has nothing to which it can be referred; while rr/v belongs to Kivt/nv

4 I have introduced " the soul," conceiving that the author wrote Tt)v Si tyvxriv, Ovtwq ixovarjg— not otirw S' txouffi/c— for otherwise the subsequent airy would want its substantive.

* C. F. Hermann reads bpQoiutvov instead of bpBovjiivov, doubtless remembering the expression l, Tov Bartpov Kukxoc opBbg iwv in Tim. p. 37, B.

* Since the words xai vXriv could not be interposed between Bibv and ov, I have translated, as if they ended the sentence.

'In lieu of aictipov, Menage would read a7roiov— referring to Cicero in Academ., "Sed subjectam putant omnibus sine ulla specie, atque carentem omni ilia qualitate materiam—" and to Origen in Philosophies—'Ti/v tie Vxtjv Svvapii fUv a&pa, Ivtpytiq dk ovtitirto' d<r\Tjud~ ritrrov yap avrjfv ovaav Kai uizoiov, irpoaXapovaav oxyuara Kai Ttolorirrac, yiv'wBai adua—a work, which Menage describes as being then unedited, but which has been given to the world by Miller at Oxford in 1851.


was brought to one spot by the deity, who considered order to be better than disorder.1 [70.] And (he said) that this existence (of matter) is to be resolved into four elements, fire, water, air, earth; from which both the world and what is in it are generated; but that the earth alone is unchangeable, assigning as a reason, the difference in the forms, of which it is composed; for of all the others he says the forms are homogenous; for they are all composed from one 2 triangle, whose sides are longer one than the other;8 but the form of the earth is peculiar to itself. For the element of fire is pyramidal; that of air, octohedral ;3 and that of water, eikosihedral;* but that of earth, cubical; from whence the earth neither changes into them, nor they into the earth. [71.] 5And that each is not separated into its own place; because the circular movement, by compressing and bringing things to the centre, causes the small particles to coalesce; but separates the large; from whence the species, as they change themselves, change likewise their places.5 And that the world is one, (and) generated; since it has been made by the deity, perceptible by mind; and that it is animated,6 in consequence of that, which is animated, being superior to that, which is not animated; and that this is laid down as the workmanship of the best cause; and that it was made one and not boundless; because one likewise was the model, by which he fabricated it. [72.] 7And that it is spherical; because he, who produced it, has that form; for that (the world) contains the rest of living beings ;7 but this (the deity) the forms of all things; and that it (the world) is smooth, 8 in a circle, and possesses no organs,8 on account of there being no use for them; moreover that the world will continue9 undestroyed,

1 See Timsus, p. 30, A.

31 On this 7rpo/i>;«c rpiyimw see Timseus, p. M, A, Such a triangle is now called scalene.

* i. e. one with eight, and the other with twenty sides. See PseudoTim. Locr. p. 98, D., for this is not stated distinctly in the Tim. of Plato.

51 See Timams, p. 58, A.

s See Timceus, p. 32, B. '—' See TimaBus, p. 32, B.

88 I have translated, as if the Greek were \ilov ti KvxXtfi Kai oiSiv opyavov t%ovTa— not XeTov Si Kai ovSiv opyavov i%ovra Kv*\<p— For the passage in the Timams, p. 32, C, is \tiov ti Sr) (cwcXy—dir^Kpi/3Ovtodfifiartov n yap tireSuTo ovSivoiiSi aKoijg—

"I have adopted Siapevuv, as suggested by Casaubon, in lieu of Stapkvtw*

on account of its being not resolved 'into the deity.1 Moreover that the deity is the cause of the whole of generation; because the good is naturally the doer of good; and that the best is the cause of the generation of heaven; for that the best of things perceived by the mind is the cause of the most beautiful of things generated; so that, since such is the deity, heaven is like the best, as being the most beautiful; and it would be like not one of things generated, but the deity (alone).2 [73.] And that the world is composed of fire, water, air, (and) earth; of fire, that it might be visible; and of earth, that it might be solid; of water and air, that it might be according to a proportion—3 for the powers of solid substances have a proportion by two middle terms—so that the whole might become one3—and that from all together it might be perfect and undestroyed. And that time is the image of eternity;4 and that this remains forever; but that time is the movement of the heaven; for that night, and day, and month, and all such things, are parts of time; and hence 5 time would not be'without the natural movement of the world;5 for that as soon as 6a movement took place in it,6 time was; and that for the generation of time, the sun and moon and planets were generated. [74.]7 And that the number of the seasons might be very plain, and living things have a share in number, (he says) that the deity lit up the light of the sun;8 and that the moon is above the circle of the earth, and the sun in that, which is near to it; and the

'—1 The MS., which Ambrosius used, seems to have read ci'c rb fii) ov, not tig rb 9t6v, as remarked by Casaubon.

* I have translated, as if the Greek were aWa /lovip rif (left — not a\\'

»—» See Timams, p. 32, B.

4 In lieu of Tov aiSiov, the syntax and sense require Tov aiWoc— the former, because the following iiimrw ought to be Kakiivo, the latter, because Plato's expression in Timaeus, p. 36, D. is ei'cui—aidvoQ—ov Br) Xpovov uivofiaKafiiv.

s5 I have translated, as if the Greek were own rijc Tov c&r/tov <pvoimic Kivi)ato>g Ovk &v tlvai xpovov— not aviv .rrje Tov icoofiov tyvotwe oi>K iivai \povov: for time is the measure of matter in motion, and has nothing to do with the nature of the world in a state of rest. Hence too in 8—" I suspect that Kivr\aiv has been lost before Koi— and if so, we need not alter avrif into avriv, as suggested by Casaubon.

: This section begins in Menage's ed. with 7rpdc 11

* See Timaeus, p. 39, B.

planets in the circles above; and that it (the world) is altogether animated, through its being bound to an animated motion; and, in order that the world might be rendered perfect, after being generated similar1 to the living being perceptible by the mind, that the nature of the rest of living beings was generated; 2 and that since it possessed,2 it was requisite for heaven likewise to possess; and that it possessed therefore gods for the most part of fire ;3 and that the other races are three, on wing, in the water, and on land. And that the earth is the oldest of the gods4 in heaven; and that it is a piece of workmanship for5 producing night and day; and that being at the centre it is moved about the centre. [75.]6 And since there are two causes, we must say, he asserts, that some things exist through mind,7 and some from a necessitous cause; and that these are air, fire, earth, water; and that they are not exactly elements, but recipients; and that these exist from triangles put together, and are resolved

1 The Greek is at present o/ioi'w£— It was originally, I suspect, S/km>c —what I have translated.

*—» Since there is nothing to serve as the object of ease, we must probably read iirti Si vovv huvog tlx*— instead of Iwti ovv Ixtlvog tlx*— Opportunely then has the Latin version—" Quoniam igitur ille mentem habebat—"

* This can be understood only by finding in the TimEeus, p. 40, A. § 15, row fiiv ovv Biiov rr)v irXciarriv iStav He irvpbg airupyaZtTO: while, instead of ixliv> Ambrosius seems to have found tlvm, as remarked by Casaubon.

4 From Cicero's version of the Timeeus, p. 40, C. § 15, yjjv Si—EixouHtvqv mot rbv Sid iravrbg troXov rerafievov tyvkaKa Kai Srjfiiovpybv Vvkroc Tt Kai rifiipag kfirixavrfffaTO TrpuTijv Kai TrpeafivraTTjv Oewv, 'boot tvrof ovpavov ytybvan, "Terram—quae trajecto axe sustinetur, diei noctisque effectricem eamdemque custodem antiquissimam corporum voluit esse eorum, qua; intra caelum gignerentur," it is evident that he found in big MS. Srifitovpybv Vvktoq re Kai rffiipag lfirixavi]ffaTo Kai tpvkaKa irpivftvTo.ti\v aoiuarmv— and so did the author of Tim. Locr. p. 97, D., tfU' fHara Si Ivri T&v Ivrbg i>pavS> oai/iaTiav— Hence one would elicit Stiw auiidruv from the two readings, diCiv and auifiaToiv

s I have translated, as if the Greek were tig rb, not Uiq

* This section begins in Menage's ed. with yrjv Si— a little above.

7 In lieu of Sta/iovr/v, Menage would read, what I have adopted, Sib vovv— confirmed by Sid vov in one MS. subsequently collated, and by Pseudo-Tim. Locr. f 1, Sio airiag riiv avu.Tta.vrm>, vbov fiiv, ri' Kara \6yov yiyvou.ivuv avayKav Si, Tuv fiia, quoted by Menage; to which may be added, Tim. p. 48, A., t£ dvdyKijg n Kai vov aoo-TaatuC tyivvifir): from whence one would substitute dvayKaiag avaraaimi in the place of dvaysaiag airiag.

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