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Answer.- Very and extremely are adverbs, modifying “deep." The other sentences I would write as follows: the snow is deep to a foot; and the snow is deep to three feet. (Vide Gould Brown, page 215, Obs. 4). Of course a and three are adjectives, and foot and feet nonns.-W. H., Lowville.
Second Answer.- Very and extremely are adverbs. Foot and feet are nouns in the objective case, without a proposition, and are essential elements of an adverbial phrase, limiting deep.-K. SPOOR, Brandon.
Third Answer. -The words in italics are the same part of speech in the sen. tences given; for, though, foot and feet have the form of nouns, they perform precisely the same grammatical office—that of adverbial modifiers, answering to the question: How deep? Words should be construed in parsing, according to the offices they perform, regardless of their forms. Syntax deals not with words, but with the elements of sentences. It would therefore be absurd to call words nouns, which clearly performed adverbial offices, as do the words foot and feet in the given sentences.-S. D. F., Packwaukee.
108.—Is there any institution in the State for feeble minded children?
There is no such institution, shame to say. The legislature has repeatedly been petitioned and memorialized on the subject, but the majority has treated the matter with seeming indifference, and some of its members with levity. (See the resolution offered by O. R. SMITH, at the late Educational Convention, and printed on a subsequent page.) Mr. WEED, Principal of the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, says parents sometimes ask admission there for feeble minded children, because they do not talk, forgetting that it is deafness, not dumbness, which gives rise to the peculiar instruction imparted there. It may reasonably be averred that the State needs an institution for these unfortunates more than it needed a new fence around the capitol park, and that its neglect to provide it is not creditable.
109.-A pole 54 feet in height, perpendicular to the horizon and standing on the side of a hill, was broken, but not completely severed, the top resting on the ground 30 feet down the hill from the foot of the pole ; the horizontal distance of the broken part from the bottom of the pole being 10% feet; required the height of the stump.-L. CAMPBELL, Door Creek.
First find the length of that part of the pole below the horizontal distance, thus: 302=900; 103 ft., or 10.52=110.75; 900-110.75=789.25 ft.; the square root of which is 28.1 + ft., the length of the part below the horizontal distance; entire length, 54 ft., -28.1 +=28.8+, part above the line. From the square of the part above the line
(25.82=665.64) Subtract the square of horizontal line
(10.52=110.25 Divide the remainder by
25.8 x 2=51.6)555.39(10.76 ft., Or 10 ft. 9+ in., height of stump.-T. HALPIN, Cedarburg.
Second Solution..—30 ft. are below the foot and 24 above it. The product of the sum and difference of two num equal to the difference of squares. 10.52=110.5-24 sum=4.593 dif.; 24-4.593=19.407-2=9.703 ans.
113.-Place the numbers from 1 to 16, in four rows, so that they 12 81 51 9 may count 34 horizontally, vertically and diagonally.—Mrs. S. C. 1|13|16| 4 SIRRINE.
15| 32114 Annexed find the required diagram.-M. V. B. S10Ats, Darien.
114.-On each side of a square 12 sheep are penned in the following manner: 12 at the top, 12 at the bottom, and 12 at each side. A person bought 8 and afterwards returned 4 of the number. Out of which pens were the 8 taken, and in which were the 4 replaced to make exactly the same number as before on each side.
Two sheep can be taken out of each pen, and two can be returned to each side pen, and then each pen on the side will be full.
115.—Why is limestone, after being heated, lighter than before; and why does the application of cold water cause it to effervesce (froth up) and become hot?
Because the heating of limestone expels the carbonic acid and reduces the base to a caustic powder, in which case it has a strong tendency to absorb, first, moisture, and then the carbonic acid of which it has been deprived.-SELF RELIANT, Rio.
A molecule of pure limestone, or calcium carbonate, is composed of one atom of calcium, one of carbon, and three of oxygen. When heat is applied to a molecule of limestone, one atom of carbon and two of oxygen are driven off in the form of carbonic acid gas, or carbonic di-oxide, and one atom of calcium and one of oxygen are left behind in the form of lime, or calcium oxide. Whenever chemical action takes place, heat is always evolved, the sensible amount of heat depending upon the rapidity of the chemical union. Whenever lime is moistened, chemical union takes place between the lime and the water, forming calcium hydrate or slacked lime, and heat is generated. The air that is mechanically mixed with the water and that in the insterstices of the lime being set free by the heat, cause the efferescence.-C., Mazomanie.
116.—If the pressure of the air will sustain a column of water only about 33 feet in height, what is the nature or philosophy of the power used to draw water from wells much deeper than that?
Country people generally employ a long rope passing over a pulley, with a bucket at each end. The “philosophy of the power used” may be stated thus: Father comes from his work hungry and calls for dinner. Mother must have some water to cook it with. She communicates her wants to Johnny, who, like an obedient son, goes to the well, pail in hand, and there wills to draw a bucket of water. Finding that the full bucket at the bottom is heavier than the empty one at the top, he grasps the rope, applies a little more than sufficient muscular strength to produce a counterpoise, and “hand over hand" brings the full bucket “ dripping with coolness” to the top! Further information given on application.-S. D. F.
Second Answer.—Water is commonly raised from greater depths than 33 feet by the lifting and forcing pumps, hydraulic ram, windlass, pulleys, steam, etc., etc. Any Natural Philosophy will answer Mrs. S. C. SIRRINE's question.—“C” Mazomanie.
[In answer to the above question, short accounts of ordinary pumps have been furnished us by “J. B.," Fond du Lac, and M. V. B. SHỌats, Darien, which we omit, as the subject can be better understood by a reference to a book on natural philosophy, illustrated by diagrams. We shall be pleased to receive more ques. tions in natural science, and fewer in mathematics, but they should be such as involve some doubt or difficulty.]
CONVENTION OF SUPERINTENDENTS AND PRINCIPALS.
MADISON, December 26, 1872. Agreeably to notice, a Convention of Superintendents and Principals, assembled at the capitol, at 10 o'clock, A. M. The meeting of Superintendents was called to order by SAMUEL FALLOws, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the Principals present were invited to participate, in a joint session. Gen. FalLOWS was chosen President of the Joint Convention, and I. N. STEWART, of Manitowoc, Secretary.
TOWNSHIP SYSTEM. The Convention proceded to discuss the question—"Should the Township System he made obligatory ?"-and Mr. A. F. NORTII, Superintendent of Wau. kesha county, who was to open the discussion, not being yet present, Rev. J. B. Pradt, Assistant State Superintendent, was requested to take his place.
Mr. PRADT said a school system should be uniform, and that such a degree of confidence should be inspired in legislslative action as that laws should be passed, if passed at all, without a “permissory” feature. The chief obstacle to the immediate adoption of the Town System was the prejudice of the people, who have been accustomed to a different one. All the State Superintendents, however, had recommended a Town System, and the time ought to be near when it could be introduced generally. The County Superintendents should bring about a fair trial of the system, which would lead to its more general adoption. Making the system compulsory at present, was of doubtful expediency.
Superintendent HOLFORD, of Grant county, found it impracticable to get a trial ; people were averse to change. Villages with graded schools of three departments should not be exempt from the town system, as is now provided. We needed effectual town supervision as well as state and county supervision ; if we could have this with a town system, he would favor the change.
Superintendent North thought the system the better one in theory, but would it give us any better teachers? What was the experience in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Iowa? In his own town its adoption heretofore would have resulted in poorer teachers and schools, on the average. Did not think it should yet be made compulsory; wanted more light; how many towns had adopted it ?
The PRESIDENT said but few, and was sorry to add that some of those had gone back on it.
Mr. PRADT had had some experience with the system as a county superintendent in Northern Pennsylvania, where the country was then new and the population mixed, as in Wisconsin, and thought the system there secured better teachers, as it tended to more permanence in their employment.
Mr. STEWART said local jealousies stood in the way. The system should be recommended and inaugurated by our leading educators; was willing to see it tried as a general system; we could go back to the old one if it proved unsuccessful.
Major A. J. CHENEY said it worked well in Massachusetts, (where it was made obligatory after three or four years), and would work well in Wisconsin or any State further west. He thought section 36 of the Township Law, in regard to villages, a great defect, as it prevents many thickly settled towns, with villages, from adopting the system. This should be changed.
Superintendent CHANDLER, of Dane county, said people were opposed to the system because they thought it would be more expensive; we could have good schools under the present system; to make the town system obligatory at present would excite opposition of which little demagogues would take advantage to its injury. We must introduce it gradually. Hereafter it would be demanded.
Mr. HOLFORD said we must have Town Superintendents, who are professional teachers; we would then have some assurance of qualified teachers and proper teaching, but not without; County Superintendents could not exercise a close supervision of the schools and teachers.
The PRESIDENT said, the main popular objection was the supposed expense of the system. Really, it was cheaper. We could not go in advance of public sentiment. He agreed with Major CHENY, that section 36 should be repealed. Successful examples of the working of the system would remove popular preju. dice.
W. D. PARKER, of Janesville, moved the appointment of a committee to report to-morrow, at 11 o'clock, and Messrs. PARKER, PRADT and STEWART were appointed. At Mr. PARKER's request Gen. Fallows was put in his place.
REPORTS OF JOINT SCHOOL DISTRICTS. Supt. CHANDLER opened the discussion on a “Change in the reports of Joint School Districts." The school reports, generally, were unreliable, and a prolific source of errors was the reports from joint-districts, which duplicated and triplicated numbers, or worse-made five months schooling into twenty months, etc. Only one report should be made from a joint-district, and that to the clerk of the town containg the school-house.
Supt. North thought the school reports not so very unreliable; there was "a Providence shapes our ends”—[Mr. CHANDLER—"Rough ”]—and if there was too much on one side, there was too little on the other; and so it averaged about right. He would have the school taxes levied by the county, based like other taxes on the valuation of property in the towns, without regard to the apportionment of the school fund income.
On motion, a committee was appointed by the chair, consisting of Messrs. CHANDLER, NORTH and HOLFORD, to report on the subject to-morrow, at 11 o'clock.
FRIDAY, 9 A. M., Dec. 28. NATURAL SCIENCE IN COMMON SCHOOLS. The first topic for discussion was “Shall a knowledge of Natural Sciences be required for a second grade certificate ?"
A. SALISBURY, of Brodhead, supposed the discussion was started by the example of Illinois, which now required Natural Science to be taught in her common Schools, and borrowed the idea from St. Louis, where, however, it occupies but one hour a week. He did not believe the plan practicable at present, and yet he would have the teacher know more than he was called on to teach. It was hardly worth while to disturb our present system until we “could sustain something really philosophical and rational.”
O. R. SMITH, of Sparta, said but a very small proportion of teachers now obtained second grade certificates, and to increase the requirements would diminish the number, and not advance the qualifications of the teachers. As such a law would be inoperative at present, like that requiring the constitutions to be taught, he would be opposed to its enactment.
Mr. PRADT thought that to follow St. Louis and Illinois in this matter, would be only another instance of attempting to pluck the fruit before it is ripe.
Mr. CHANDLER said some cram a little and get a second grade, to influence school boards. He thought county superintendents should have discretionary power to require more studies for this grade. The place to begin the reform was at the Normal School.
J. K. PURDY, of Fort Atkinson, thought the influence of second grade certificates with school boards on the wane. Teachers themselves cared little for them.
Supt. HOLFORD agreed with Mr. Purdy, but if the law required more studies, for even a third grade, teachers would be prepared, rather than not teach. Half the country schools did not teach geography, and less grammar.
Mr. CHANDLER asked if teachers did not know more about the “Constitutions: since the new law.
Mr. HOLFORD said they did, but gave some amusing specimens of their blunders.
E. MARSH, of Waterloo, said teachers could not control the studies pursued in school, but if the law required the natural sciences, teachers would find out something about them, as they have about the Constitutions. He would require them even for a third grade.
Mr. Smith knew of a board which required a second grade—the teachers got them—and knew as little of the additional studies as they did of Hebrew. Most of the teachers have no means of studying natural science; some superintendents could not examine them in it. Even now there is great difficulty in supplying the schools with teachers. Natural science should be taught through the Institutes, as far as possible.
Mr. CHANDLER said the law proposed would affect only 400 teachers. The State was now expending $100,000 per annum to furnish the means for obtain. ing this instruction.
Prest. ALBEE, of the Oshkosh Normal School, thought it not more difficult to supply teachers than before the enactment of the law requiring the Constitutions. Costly apparatus was not necessary to teach the elements of natural science. Anyone can pluck a leaf and find out its classification-what tree it belongs to.
Mr. SALISBURY thought such a law would not improve the real qualifications of teachers. A little show of algebra gives a fictitious standing; so it would be in this matter.
Mr. CHEENEY had seen the working of the law in Illinois, and found it a farce. One superintendent, in examination, asked one question in physiology, and one in natural philosophy. In one school he found classes in Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and Geology, and none in Grammar, Geography, or History-hadn't time for both-must obey the new law!
Prof. GRAHAM said the law should apply to third grade as well as second ; the elements of science should be taught in common schools. Superintendents in Illinois didn't do their duty- the fault was not in the law; the subject should be taught orally.
Mr. CHASE, of Madison, did not see how teachers who know nothing about it could teach it orally; but too much time was given to geography; we could save