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land and Labrador, till he reached Greenland. BIARNE is said not to have landed on the continent of America.--A. J. PATTEE, Stevens Point.
128.—"I had nothing else to eat” is equivalent to "I had no other thing to eat;" other, is an adjective belonging to thing.–V. U., Eagle, and S. D. F.
130.-If the democratic theory of government is the correct one, is it not as good for children of a smaller, as those “of a larger growth;" and should it not be applied in the government of schools ?
Democratic government is based on the supposition that the governed know their rights and their duties. If you have a school of such scholars, why not apply democratic government?–MATTHIAS SCHAFER, Muscoda.
Second Answer.—I will answer the above with another, question which I think must be satisfactorily settled before conceding the right of self government to scholars. If the democratic theory of government is the correct one, is it not as good for children of a smaller as those“ of a larger growth,” and should it not be applied in the government of children at home.-Rex, Appleton.
Third Answer.—The lesson of self government has yet to be learned by chil. dren who attend public schools. Both mind and body being immature, it is too much to expect them capable of possessing the judgment necessary to a demo. cratic form of government in the school.-LEAH CAR.
131. Has the earth more than two motions? Has it a motion of greater and less inclination ?
Besides it motion on its axis and its motion round the sun, the earth has & “tilting” motion which causes the equator to pass under the vertical rays of the sun twice every year, viz: the 21st of March and the 21st of September.-REX, Appleton.
133.-A man and boy can drink a barrel of water in 521 days. In what time will each drink it, if it take the boy 101 days longer than the man?
[We have been furnished with a second algebraic solution, by W. J. HUGHES, of Cambria, making the time for the man 100 days, and for the boy 1101**s; also, with a second answer by arithmetic, making the man's time 284 days, and the boy's 31f days. The question must be understood to mean, " in what time will each drink it alone, if,” etc. In this case it is evident that it will require either of them a longer time than that in which both drink it; therefore the arithmetical answers are wrong.)
134.–Who will explain the words, in regard to Bonaparte, on p. 34, McGuffy's Fifth Reader, first paragraph, “the orphan of St. Louis”?
Napoleon Bonaparte was partly educated at l'Ecole de St. Cyr, a charitable military school founded by King Louis (the one to whom the priest referred, when, at the instant that the head was severed from the body of Louis XVI.
, he exclaimed, “Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven”); it was especially designed for the orphan sons of deceased military men.-LEAH CAR.
135.—The area of a right-angled triangle is 30 square rods; the sum of the sides is 30 rods ; required the length of each side.
Let x=perpendicular, and y=base; then 30-(x+y)=hypothenuse. Since the area is 30, we have «=30; and since the sum of the sides is 30, væ*+go=30–
(x+y). From these equations, y=12 and x=5. The hypothenuse=30–(12+5) =13. Hence the sides are 5, 12, 13.–V. U., Eagle.
[Answered also by W. HUGHES, Cambria, and A. S. I., Sparta, who give longer solutions, but with the same results.]
138.-Is the word “newspaporial ” admissible?
Any word that conveys a meaning not expressed by another and shorter word, is admissible, always providing the public understands it. Writers most prolific in ideas are most economical of language, using few phrases or sentences where a single word will serve as well.—S. D. F.
Why not; only be a little more liberal, and form verbs also from “newspaper,” say with a Greek ending, either in izo or azo, so: newspaperizo, or newspaperazo. Think of the acoustic pleasure of hearing a dozen or two of newsboys running through the streets with the shrill shout: newspaperizo, izo, izo, etc., waking up the musical talents of all the roosters and turkey-gobblers within hearing distance, to fall in in chorus. May be that all the Bridgets within hearing, induced by congenial sound, would fall in with a hearty sneeze. Or take the other suffix, azo, and imagine how the several larynxes of hens, guineas, ducks, frogs, etc., would be tickled to make them fall in and give us such a concert. So, let us have the full improvement by all means.-M. SHAFER, Muscoda.
139. [Definitions to various words required.]
Is not Mousignare a corruption of Monseigneur ? Literally, my Lord. It is applied to church dignitaries in France.
Kindergarten, literally child's garden, an infant school on the Pestalozzian plan.
Darwinism is the theory of development. It is by no means new, but has been, to some extent, popularized by Prof. DARWIN, who has published books in support of it. He contends that the human family are developments of the lower orders of creation.
Muscovite, a Russian, Muscovy being the ancient name of Russia.
Loudre, a palace in Paris, once inhabited by the monarch. Now chiefly noted for its splendid collection of paintings.
Calsomining, the process of putting calsomine on walls of rooms, is similar to whitewashing, but considered superior. [Is it not simply whitening ?]
Tristan and Isolde, a hero and heroine of the ancient romance. The three kings of Orient are similar characters.
Escurial, a magnificent palace built by Philip II. of Spain, near Madrid. It was raised to the memory of St. Lawrence, whose interposition Philip ascribed the victory of the battle of St. Quentin. It was built in the shape of a gridiron, that saint having suffered martyrdom by being roasted on a gridiron. It contained valuable paintings and other mementoes of by-gone ages. I believe it was burned lately.
Alhambra, an ancient Moorish palace, in the province of Granada, in Spain; said to be able to lodge and entertain 40,000 persons. The Moors were van. quished by Ferdinand and Isabella; and Boabdil, the last Moorish king of Grenada, surrendered January 6, 1492.
Schreiberzite—(should it not be Schriebezit ?)—meaning writing time.
Plug Uglies, a name given to the roughs of New York. [First in Baltimore ?) Decalcomania, a species of fancy-work, fashionable for two or three years past. Neibelungen.-Is it not Niebelungen ?—a German poem of ancient times.
Old Catholics.—Those who still deny the doctrine of the Infallibility of the Pope, to distinguish them from those who agree with the decision of the late Ecumenical Council.
Passion Play.-A play acted in a village in the Hartz mountains, representing the last week of the life of Jesus Christ.-LEAH CAR.
Beteigeuze.— A star of the first magnitude in the right shoulder of Orion, near the milky way.
Kindelgarten.-(Garden for children), beautiful name of the place, where according to Froebel's system, children learn from objects, play and take exercise.
Jeunesse Doree.—(for golden youth), the youth of the rich and the aristocratic.
Satis Sapientes.—Has no meaning as it stands. For sapientes it should be the dative sing. French, sapienti satis, or, as generally used : sat, the short form for satis. To the wise, enough; or in common parlance, the knowing will take the hint.
Boor.—(Hollandish; German, Bauer), one who (bauts) cultivates the earth.—M. SCHAFER, Muscoda.
[Mr. S. explains “Old Catholics," and “Escurial,' briefly, as does LEAH CAR, above, more fully.]
140.—What is the difference in the construction of the following sentences ! I ordered him to make a wagon. I told him to make a wagon. I wish him to make a wagon.
Grammatically considered, these expressions are alike; “I,” the grammatical subject in all,“ ordered,” “ told” and “wish,” respectively the grammatical predicates, limited in such case by the objective element, “him to make a wagon." G. M. B., Wausau; also by S. D. F., to the same effect.
141.-Analyze and parse, “You have taken me prisoner.”
You is the logical and grammatical subject; have taken me prisoner-logical predicate; have taken, grammatical, limited by me, the objective element; and prisoner is an adverbial element.
Parsing.—You is a pro., 2d pers., sing. or plu., com. g., nom. Have taken is a verb, irr., trans., act., indic., pres., perf., etc. Me is a pro., per., 1st pers., sing. c. g., obj. Prisoner is a n., com., 3d per., sing., c. g., obj. But the noun,“ prisoner," has no governing word; its office is clearly adverbial, describing the manner of the taking and making the expression equivalent to: "You have captured me."-G. M. B., Wausau.
The only question that can arise in parsing the above sentence is in the disposition of the word " prisoner.” We cannot call prisoner the object of "have taken,” unless I was a prisoner before being taken; which is probably not the idea intended to be conveyed. The word tells for what purpose I was taken, and is therefore an element in some adverbial phrase, and might be rendered thus: I was taken as a prisoner. Some grammarians would call it the object of the verb “ have taken,” (see Clark's grammar, page 210); but the act expressed does not terminate on prisoner, since the condition of being a prisoner is an after consequence of the act of taking.-8. D. F.
“Have taken," in this expression, governs two objectives, the same as “have made ” in the sentence, “ you have made me prisoner.” “Me" is the direct object and “prisoner" is the indirect or predicate object.-M. E. C., River Falls .
142.- Parse back, in this connection—"back to thy punishment !!"
According to the “books," back, in the expression—" back to thy punish. ment,” is an adverb, limiting go, understood, but there is no objection to calling it a verb, equivalent to return. That it is a verb in this sentence, may be seen by comparing it with the following:
“Back ruffians, back; nor dare to tread
Too near the body of my dead,” In which it is clearly a verb.-G. M. B., Wausau.
S. D. F., M. E C., River Falls, and L. H. BRAINARD, Amherst, consider" back” an adverb, modifying go, understood, the predicate of the imperative sentence.
143.—What is the predicate in this sentence—“How do you do ?”
This repetition of "do," I regard as an idiomatic redundancy. The meaning, if it has any, may be expressed thus: How do you, or, you do how. In this sense the verb "do," is intransitive, and equivalent to behave or conduct. If the verb “ do ” is considered as transitive in the sentence given, one is a principal, and the other an auxiliary verb.-S. D. F.
“ Do-do." The first “do " is the auxiliary, used in questions and emphatic expressions.-M. E. C., River Falls.
145.–What kind of a substance is “borax," and where found ?
Borax is the “ biborate of soda; a salt formed by a combination of boracic acid with soda. It was originally obtained from a lake in Thibet.”-W.
146.—Who was Michael Angelo?
Michael Angelo was a great sculptor, architect and painter. He was born A., D. 1474, in the neighborhood of Florence. When quite young he made the celebrated statue of a "sleeping Cupid," which was sent to Rome, where it was pronounced to be superior to anything before produced. Shortly after he was invited to Rome where he devoted himself to close study, and executed several marvelous works. By the novelty and grandeur of his style he created quite a new era in the arts. He designed the celebrated church of St. Peter, at Rome, the largest and grandest in the world, as well as the magnificent monument of the tomb of Pope Julius XI. One of his greatest works was the painting of the roof of the Sistine chapel in the Vatican, which he completed in a year and eight months. He died A. D. 1563, in his eighty-ninth year. He was buried in Rome, but afterwards removed to the church of Sta Croce at Florence, where so many of the great men of Italy have found their last resting place. - F. G. C., Butler.
149.-A father, on dying, directed in his will that his property, which con. sisted of one complete section of land in the extreme northeast part of the town. ship in which he resided, should be divided among his children, which con.
sisted of one son and four daughters, in the following manner, viz.: The son was to have the northwest quarter of the section as his portion. Each daughter was to have an equal portion of the remaining three-fourths of the section; but it was to be divided in such a way that each portion was to be exactly the same shape and size. A diagram of the section, showing each child's farm, also a description of each farm, according to government survey, is solicited.
Description of the Farm8.-1. The son's: N. W. 4 of Sec. No. 1.-2. The first daughter's,
2 N. 12 of N. E. 4 and S. E. 74 of N. E. 4 Sec.
1 1.-3. The 2d daughter's, S. 12 of S. E. 4 and N. E. 4 of S. E. 4 Sec. 1.–4. The 3d daughter's, S. 42 of S. W. 4 and N. W. 14 of 8. W.14 Sec. 1.-5. The 4th daughter's, S. W. 14 of N.
5 E. 14, N. W. 4 of S. E. 4, and N. E. 4 of S. W. 4 of Sec. 1. Each daughter would, of course, have 24 of a section, or 120 acres. The
3 five farms are indicated in the diagram by the numerals 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Answers, with the required diagram, were furnished by C. E. BUELL, Sun Prairie; F. G. C., Butler; M. E. Cady, River Falls; N. DARROW, Reedsburgh; S. D. F., Packwaukee; JOHN HARDGROVE, Forest; W. HOPKINS, Eagle Point; E. H. JANSEN, Cedarburg; A. A. KRAUSE, Greenfield; N. B. PRENTICE, Dakota ; J. R. RALPH, Hazel Green; E. H. SPRAGUE, Stockbridge, and V. U., Eagle.
150.–Are the winters and summers of the north and sauth temperate zones of the same temperature ?
I consider not. I consider that we have in this zone a cooler summer and a milder winter for this simple reason: When we, in this zone, have winter, the earth is in that part of its orbit which is 2,000,000 of miles nearer to the sun than it is when they, in the south temperate zone, have their winter; and when we, in this zone, have summer, we have it when the earth is in that part of its orbit which is 2,000,000 of miles farther from the sun than it is when they in the south temperate zone have their summer. Therefore, since the sun is the chief source of heat, we must, by necessary consequence, have a milder winter and a cooler summer.-JOHN HARDGROVE, Forest.
150.—Theoretically they are, but practically the unequal distribution and con. formation of the land, and the influence of ocean currents materially modify the temperature.-S. D. F.
NEW QUESTIONS. The wind or some other mischief- maker wafted away a long list of new questions sent us by various parties. Unless replaced we cannot give them.
155. In Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, page 1519, we find the following sentences, designed to illustrate the intransitive use of the verb wish: “I wish above all things that thou mayest prosper." Some ills we wish for when we wish to live. I wish that it may not prove some omnious token of misfortune to have met with such a miser as I am.” Is the verb used intransitively in all or any of these sentences ?-G. M. B., Wausau.
156. Parse with his army in the following sentence: The general, with his army, was taken prisoner.-Ib.