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tended, that their horses are in the highest estimation throughout Europe, and in periods of national tranquillity constitute ... important article of exportation. Their race-horse is not excelled in fleetness or beauty by the coursers of Barbary or Arabia, and in supporting a continuance of intense effort is far superior to them both. Details of the exploits of English racers form a subject of extreme interest to a particular description of readers, and cannot be considered by any admirers of nature as beneath attention. Out of innumerable instances which have been authenticated, we shall just men. tion, that Bay Malton, belonging to the Marquis of itockingham, ran four miles on the York course in seven minutes and forty four seconds. The celebrated Childers is supposed to have been the fleetest horse ever known in the world. He was opposed by all the most listinguishcd horses of his day, and what is, perhaps, unprecedented in such a variety of contests, in every instance bore off the prize. He is stated to have run a mile in very little more than a minute, and his general progress on a four mile course was at the rate of eighty-two feet and a half in a second. Eclipse was almost equally swift with Childers, and was considerably stronger. His form was by no means considered as handsome, as indeed his dimensions deviated very considerably from those which were supposed to constitute the standard of perfect beauty in the horse; but, on the most minute examination, his structure was found to be contrived with the most exquisite mechanism for speed. This horse died at the age of twenty six years, which, though unquestionably great, has been often considerably exceeded. Matchem, another celebrated racer, died at the age of thirty-two. For the race-horse, see Mammalia, Plate XI fig. 1. The hunter is another distinct class of horses in England, where it is brought, by minute attention to breeding, to a high degree of excellence. With a considerable portion of the speed of the racehorse, it combines inexpressibly more strength; and the exertions which it of. ten endures and survives, in violent chases of several hours continuance, are a decided proof of its vigour and value. The draught-horse constitutes another class of these most interesting animals, and is no where advanced to such size and power as in Great Britain. Yorkshire and Lincolnshire are the most celebrated counties for this breed, whence several

have been brought to London, which

have each, for a short distance, drawn, without difficulty, the weight of three tons, half of which is considered as the regular draught. A horse of this class was exhibited as a curiosity in London in the year 1895, no less than twenty hands in height. For the cart-horse, see Mammalia, Plate XI fig. 2. The colour of the horse is generally considered as a matter of trifling consequence. A bright or shining bay appears in this country to obtain the preference. In China, what are called pie-bald horses are in particular cstimation. On occasions of particular state in Fngland, eight horses of a cream colour draw the royal carriage. The ancients appear to have connected their ideas of pomp and dignity on similar occasions with the perfect white, in allusion to which the classics furnish an infinity of circumstances. Absolute whiteness in the horse is, in this country, in almost every instance, the ef. fect of age, which expunges the dark spots of the original grey. The improvement of the horse has within a few years been an object of the attention of government, as well as of enlightened individuals ; and establishments have been formed on a liberal scale for the promotion of veterinary science. In France the government has recently devoted considerable attention to this highly important subject; and during the last year only (1807) a very considerable number of veterinary schools or colleges were instituted in the capital, and the principal cities of the departments. E. asinus, the ass. A warm climate is favourable to this species, (as also indeed to the horse,) which is found in various parts of Africa in a state of nature, in which it is gregarious, and displays very considerable beauty, and even sprightliness. In the mountainous territories of Tartary, and in the south of India and Persia, asses occur in great abundance, and are said to be here either absolutely white, or of a pale grey. Their hair also is reported to be bright and silky. In Persia asses are extremely in use, and supply, for different purposes, two very different races, one heavy and slow, and the other slight, sprightly, and agile, which last is exclusively kept for the saddle. The practice is prevalent in that country, of slitting the nostrils of these animals, by which it is imagined they breathe with greater freedom, and can consequently sustain greater exertion. The ass is stated to have been unknown in England before the reign of Elizabeth. It is now, however, completely naturalized, and its services to the poor, and consequently to the rich, are of distinguished and almost indispensable importance. With respect to food, a little is sufficient for its wants, and the most coarse and neglected herbage supplies it with an acceptable repast. The plantain is its most favourite herbage. In the choice of water it is, however, extremely fastidious, drinking only of that which is perfectly pure and clear. It is one of the most patient and persevering of animals, but in connection with these qualities, it possesses also great sluggishness, and often obstinacy. Owing to the extreme thickness of its skin, it possesses little sensibility to the application of the whip or the stings of insects, and the want of moisture, united to the above circumstance, precludes it more effectually than, perhaps, any other quadruped, from the annoyance of vermin. The ass is remarkable for particular caution against wetting its feet, to avoid which it will make various turns and crossings on the road. It seldom lies down to sleep, unless it is particularly fatigued, and sleeps considerably less than the horse. It is capable of being taught a variety of exercises, and, though regarded as a just emblem of stupidity, is far more susceptible and docile than is generally imagined, though unquestionably far inferior to the horse in these respects. Its bray is harsh and disgusting, particularly that of the male. The female has been considered by many naturalists as incapable of braying, contrary, in this country, most certainly, to the most frequent and obvious facts. Her voice is somewhat shriller and weaker than the male. In several countries of Africa, and in some islands of the ...'...i. asses are hunted for food, and their flesh is regarded as highly nutritious and agreeable. In England their milk is in high esteem in cases of debility and decline, and where the stomach of the patient is incapable of digesting the more strong and oily produce of the cow. In America, the ass was introduced by the Spaniards, and on the southern continent of that quarter of the world these aniinals are found at present in vast herds, having multiplied to an extreme degree, and being frequently hunted by the natives, who contrive to surround a particular herd, and enclosing them gradually within a very small compass, entangle as many as they chuse to take, by throwing over each a

noosed cord with unfailing dexterity. The animal is then tettered with extreme ease, and left in that state upon the ground till the conclusion of the chase, which sometimes is continued for two or three days. They are as swift as horses, and indeed, in all ages, the will ass has been considered as distinguished by rapidity. They attack and defend both with the hoof and teeth, in the same manner as horses. The slowness and sluggishness of the ass have frequently excited ludicrous feelings, and it is related of Crassus, that the only occasion on which he was ever known to laugh was at an ass eating thistles. The habits of the ass, however, do not appear certainly a more fertile subject of ridicule than those of that philosophnr. The mule is a hybrid animal, between the horse and the ass, and from its barrenness affords unquestionable evidence of the distinctness of these two species. In mountainous districts the mule is extremely serviceable as a beast of burthen, as it moves over steep and rugged roads with astonishing firmness, steadiness, and facility. In England these animals are but little used, and where they are employed, it is almost uniformly in the above situations. The breed in this country has been considerably improved within a short period, by the importation of asses from Spain, where mules are in the highest estimation, and employed by the first orders of the opulent and noble, both for the saddle and the carriage. They are not unfrequently sold in that kingdom at the price of sixty or seventy guineas. To those who reside in a country abounding with precipitous passes and rugged roads, mules are invaluable, on account of their steadiness and accuracy of step. In the Alps they are uniformly employed by travellers to descend roads, the narrowness, obliquity, and danger of which fill the rider with something approaching to consternation. Their manner, on particular occasions of perilous and steep descent, is worthy of being mentioned. Among the Alps the path often occupies only the space of a few feet in width, having on one side an eminence of perpendicular ascent, and on the other a vast abyss, and, as it generally follows the direction of the mountains, presents frequently declivities of several hundred yards. On arriving at one of these, the mule for a moment halts, and no effort of the rider can for the time urge it forward. It appears alarmed at the contemplation of the danger. In a few moments, however, it places its fore feet as it might be supposed to do in the act of stopping itself, and almost immediately closes its hinder feet, somewhat advancing them, so as to give the idea of its intention to lie down. In this attitude it glides down the descent with astonishing rapidity, yet, amidst all its speed, retains that self government, which enables it to follow, with the most perfect precision, all the windings of the road, and to avoid every impediment to its progress and security. During these singular and critical movements, the rider must be cautious to avoid the slightest check, and must devote his attention to the preservation of his seat, without deranging the equilibrium of the mule, the least disordering of which would be inevitably fatal. By long experience on these perilous roads, some mules have acquired the most admirable and astonishing dexterity, and having been in particular requisition from their extraordinary skill and fame, have become a source of corresponding profit to their owners. See Mammalia, Plate XI. fig. 3. E. zebra, or the zebra, is somewhat larger than the ass, and far more elegant in its form, particularly with respect to the head and ears. It is either of a milk white or cream colour, adorned on every part with brownish-black stripes, running transversely on the limbs and body, and longitudinally on the face, and arranged with exquisite order, and attended with extreme brilliancy and beauty. These animals inhabit in Africa from Ethiopia to the Cape of Good Hope, between which they exist in vast herds, possessing much of the habits of the wild horse and ass. Like them, they are extremely vigilant, and extremely fleet, and so fearful of the sight of man, that, on his first appearance, they fly off with all possible rapidity. They are of an untractable temper, and the attempts which have been made to domesticate them have in no instance been attended with complete success. Even when taken young, and brought up with particulalar assiduity, they have yet exhibited a disposition so wild and vicious, as to give little hope that this beautiful race of creatures will ever eventually be of great service to mankind. Our slight acquaintance, however, with them, would render a positive decision to this pur. pose exceedingly premature. Should the zebra ever be made safely and

easily convertible to the same purposes as the horse, an elegant variety would be added to the luxuries of the great and opulent. See Mammalia, Plate XI. fig. 4. E. quagga, is marked with fewer stripes than the zebra, and those few of a browner colour and larger size. The hinder parts of this animal are not striped, but spotted. It is found in Africa, is gregarious, extremely fleet, and more tractable than the last species, so much so indeed, that by the Dutch settlers at the Cape it has been occasionally employed for the purposes both of draught and saddle. The same parts of Africa abound both in the quagga and the zebra, but the two species are never seen together. E. bisulcus, or the huemel, is a native of South America, particularly of the rugged districts of the Andes. It resembles the ass in general form, and the horse in voice, and in the smallness and neatness of its ears; it is distinguished from both, and from every other known species of the equine genus, by having a divided hoof, and constitutes a link between the cloven-hoofed and whole-hoofed quadrupeds. ERECTOR. See ANATOMY. ERICA, in botany, heath, a genus of the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Bicornes. Erica, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fourleaved; corolla four-cleft; filaments inserted into the receptacle ; anthers cloven ; capsule four-celled. There are eighty-four species. These are small shrubs Their leaves are linear, lanceolate, or ovate, imbricate or remote, entire, ciliate or serrate, in some opposite, in most whorled, in others again scattered; bractes usually three ; the flowers are either axillary or terminating, and variously disposed; corolla mostly of a purple colour; anthers usually oblong, though sometimes linear; germ in most species smooth. ERIDANUS, in astronomy, a constellation of the southern hemisphere; containing, according to different authors, 19, 30, or even 68 stars. ERIGERON, in botany, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua class and order. Natural order of Composite Discoideae. Corymbiferae, Jussieu. Essential character : receptacle naked; down hairy; corolla of the ray linear, and very narrow There are thirty species. The Erigeron pulchellum, an American species, is said to be one of the

Indian remedies for the bite of the rattlesnake.

ERINACEUS, the hedge-hog, in natural history, a genus of Mammalia, of the order Ferae. Generic character: two fore teeth, both above and below, those of the upper jaw distant, those of the lower approximated; five tusks an each side of the upper jaw, three on each side of the lower; four grinders on each side, both above and below ; body covered on the upper part with spines. There are six species.

E. Europaeus, the common hedge-hog, is found in all the temperate climates of Europe and Asia. Its whole length is about eleven inches, its colour generally a grey brown. It lives in hedges and hickets, and subsists on young toads, worms, beetles, crabs, fruits, and birds. It conceals itself in its hole during the day, and by night wanders in search of food. It builds its nest of moss, and po four or five young ones at a irth. These animals possess the curious, though not completely singular, property of rolling themselves into a compact form, like a ball, their spines only appearing, and presenting to the enemy an armed front, which he generally trembles to assail. The greater the danger it is exposed to, the more closely it is compacted, and it is difficult to compel it from this state to its usual form without the application of cold water, on being immersed in which it appears in its usual shape. It lies in this ...ii. form during the winter in its mossy nest, insensible to the extremity of the cold, and, on the approach of spring, resumes its nocturnal researches. It is perfectly harmless, and in some countries is said to be domesticated, and in this state is employed by the Calmucks in their habitations to clear them from various annoying insects. It possesses a considerable odour of musk. It is occasionally hunted by dogs, which, however, before they are disciplined to the pursuit, are not #. of encountering these animals, being deterred by their horrid aspect, or wounding bristles. They soon, however, find their superiority, and after a little irritation from the spines of the animal, are exasperated to the full application of their teeth, which the hedge-hog is totally unable to resist. Finding his globular form now cease to be his effectual security, he unrolls himself, and falls an immediate victim to the dogs, who are generally urged on to the sport by persons of far greater curiosity than sensibility. See Mammalia, Plate XII. fig. 1.

E. Mallaccensis, or the Malacca hedge. hog, is about the size of the common porcupine; its ears are long and pendulous, and its spines, or rather quills, are stated to vary on different parts of the animal, from the length of an inch to a foot and a half. It is remarkable for a concretion in the gall-bladder about the size of a walnut, which is intensely bitter, and which, in the days of medical ignorance and superstition, was i.e.: to possess the highest virtue in cases of fever and other malignant diesases, and, when found entire, has been sold occasionally for more than two hundred pounds. These bezoars, however, are by no means peculiar to this animal. See Mammalia, Plate XII. fig. 2. ERINUS, in botany, a genus of the Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. Natural order of Personatae. Pediculares, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fiveleaved; corolla border five-cleft, equal, with the lobes emarginate; upper li very short, reflex ; capsule on. There are thirteen species. The flowers in this genus are either axillary, or with one bracte to each, in a terminating spike; leaves alternate. They are chiefly natives of Africa. ERIOCAULON, a genus of the Triandria To: class and order. Natural order of Ensatae. Junci, Jussieu. Essential character : calyx common, an imbricate head; petals three, equal; stamina upon the germ. There are six species. ERIOCEPHALUS, in botany, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Necessaria class and order. Natural order of Compositae Nucamentaceae. Corymbiferae, Jussieu. Essential character : receptacle subvillose; down none; calyx ten leaved, equal; in the ray five floscules. There are two species, viz. E. africanus, clusterleaved eriocephalus, and E. racemosus, silvery-leaved eriocephalus. Both natives of the Cape of Good Hope. The leaves of the first mentioned are woolly; they come out in clusters, some taper and entire, others divided into three pairs, which spread open like a hand; they have a strong smell when bruised, approaching to that of lavender cotton, though not so rank. The flowers are produced in small clusters at the ends of the branches, standing erect. The female florets which compose the ray form a hollow, in the middle of which the hermaphrodite florets forming the disk are situated. ERIOPHORUM, in botany, cotton grass, and order. Natural order of Calamaria. Cyperoideae, Jussieu. Essential character: giumes chaffy, imbricate every way; corolla none; seed one, surrounded with a very long wool. There are six species. These are bog plants, and are nearly allied to the grasses; they are rarely cultivated in gardens. ERIOSPERMUM, in botany, a genus of the Hexandria Monogynia class and order. Corolla six-petalled, campanulate, permanent; filaments dilated at the base ; capsule three-celled ; seeds invested with wool. There are three species. ERIOSTEMUM, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia class and or der. Calyx five parted; petals five, sessile; stamina flat, ciliate ; antherae pedicelled terminal; style from the base of the germ; capsules five, united, seated on a nectary covered with protuberances; seeds coated. One species, viz. E. australasia. ERITH ALIS, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Rubiaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla five-parted, with the divisions bent back; calyx pitchershaped; berry ten celled, inferior. There are two species, viz. the fruticosa and polygama. Err MIN. See MUSTELA. ERM IN, in heraldry, is always argent and sable, that is, a white field, or fur, with black spots. These spots are not of any determinate number, but may be more or less, at the pleasure of the ainter, as the skins are thought not to {. naturally so spotted; but serving for lining the garments of great persons, the furriers were wont, in order to add to their beauty, to sow bits of the black tails of the creatures that produced them upon the white of their skin, to render them the more conspicuous, which alteration was introduced into armoury. ERMINE’, or cross ermine, is one composed of four ermin spots. It is to be ob

, a genus of the Triandria Monogynia class

served, that the colours in these arms are.

not to be expressed, because neither this cross nor these arms can be of any other colour but white and black. ERNODEA, in botany, a genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx four-parted ; corolla one-petalled, salver-shaped; berry two-celled; seeds solitary. There is but one species, viz. E. littoralis, a native of Jamaica. ERODIUM, in botany, cranes hill, a genus of the Monadelphia Pentandria class and order. Natural order of Grui

males. Gerania, Jussieu. Calyx fiveleaved ; corolla five-petalled; nectary five-scales, alternate with the filam: hts and glands at the base of the stant ns; fruit five-grained, with a spiral beak, bearded on the inside. There are twentyeight species. ERODIUS, in natural history, a genus of insects of the order Coleoptera. Antennae moniliform; feelers four, filiform; body roundish, gibbous, immarginate; thorax transverse; shells closely united, longer than the abdomen ; jaw horny, bifid lip horny, emarginate. There are four species. Elto TEUM, in botany, a genus of the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx five-leaved; corolla five-petalled ; stile trifid; berry juiceless, three-celled, many-seeded. There are two species, viz. E. thorides, and E. undulatum, both natives of Jamaica. ERROR, in law, signifies an error in pleading, or in the process on the judgment; and the writ which is brough; for remedy of it is called a writ of error. This is a commission to judges of a superior court, by which they are authorized to examine the record upon which a judgment was given in an inferior court, and, on such examination, to af. firm or reverse the same according to law. For particulars as to the practice of writs of error, see Tomlin’s “ Law Dictionary.” ERUCTATIONS, in medicine, are the effect of flatulent foods, and the crudities thence arising.

ERUDITION, denotes an extensive acquaintance with books, especially such as treat of the belles-lettres.


ERVUM, in botany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Natural order of Papilionaceae, or Leguminosae. Essential character: calyx fiveparted, the length of the corolla. There are six species; of which F. lens, flatseeded tare, or common lentil, is an annual plant, and the least of the pulse kind which is cultivated ; it rises with weak stalks a foot and half high, having pinnate leaves at each joint, composed of several pairs of narrow leaflets, terminated by a tendril, which supports it by fastening about some other plant; the flowers come out on short peduncles from the sides of the branches; they are small, of a pale purple colour, and three or four together; legumes short and flat, containing two or three flat, round seeds,

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