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unual claim, by law considered equiva- the different cases to which the writ is lent to entry: A right of entry is when applied, and those are generally derived a party may have his remedy, either by from the terms in which it states the entering into the lands, or by action to wrongful entry to have been made, or recover it. A title of entry is where one sets out the different degrees of descent, has a lawful entry in the land which ano through which the lands have passed in ther bas, but has no action to recover it the possession of the wrongful tenants. till he has entered.

After a certain degree of descents, these Entry is a summary remedy against are no longer noticed in the writ. The certain species of injury by ouster, or writ against the immedliate wrong doer putting out of possession of lands ; when is called a writ of entry in nature of asthe party must make a formal but peace. size : that upon one descent, an entry able entry, declaring that he takes pos sur disseisin in the per; and upon an ensession ; or may enter upon any part in try where the first disseisor has enfeoffed the same county in the name of the another, and he a third, it is an entry whole; and if he cannot go upon the sur disseisin in le per et eni. An entry in land for bodily fear, he may make a le post states only that the tenant liath claim as near the estate as he can, which not entry but after (post) the disseisin of must be repeated once within every A. B. which is allowed in cases beyond year and day, and is called continual the foregoing degrees. There are other claim. This remedy is admitted only writs adapted to particular cases, which where the adverse possession originally we shall only mention by name, and re. commenced by wrong, as in the in- fer to the larger dictionaries of the law stances technically called abatement, in- for their precise meaning: such are trusion, or disseisin. On a discontinuance Extry ad communem legem, for the re. or deforcement, the party is put to his versioner of tenants in dower by cour. action. Even in the former cases, when tesy for life, &c. the original wrongful possessor dies, and Entry ad terminum qui præteriit, a writ the land comes to bis heir, the right of for the reversioner, after the end of a entry is tolled, i. e. taken away by the term or estate for life, against a stranger descent. If the claimant was under dis- in possession. ability, from age, coverture, &c. the en. ENTRY in casu consimili. try is not tolled by descent; nor in case Entry in casu proviso. of an actual disseisin, unless the disseisor Entry causa matrimonii prælocuti. was in peaceable possession for five Several points of law occur, as to the years. Stat. 32 Henry VIII. c. 33. En effect of an entry in the case of joint iry must be made within 20 years after tenancy and coparcenary; of entry by the claimant's right shall accrue, 21 Jac. the heir ; of entry to divest an estate; 1. c. 16; and by 4 and 5 Anne, c. 16, no to take advantage of a condition which entry shall avail to save this statute, un cannot be investigated here ; but in ge. less an action is commenced and prose neral it may be observed, that a bare encuted with effect upon it within one try, without expulsion, makes only a year after ; and, finally, by stat. 5 Ric. seisin ; so that the law thereupon adII. st. 1. c. 8, entry must be pursued in a judges him in possession who has the peaceable manner; for if one turns or right. keeps another out of possession forcibly, ENVELOPE, in fortification, a work it is not only the subject of a civil reme of earth, sometimes in form of a simple dy, but of a fine and punishment for a parapet, and at others like a small rammisdemeanor.

part with a parapet: it is raised someEstry, the writ of, is a possessory re times on the ditch, and sometimes bemedy, which disproves the title of the yond it. tenant or possessor, by shewing the un ENVOY, a person deputed to nego. lawful means by which he entered or tiate some affair with any foreign prince continues in possession. It was former or state. Those sent from the courts of ly an usual mode of recovering lands, France, Britain, Spain, &c. to any petty but is now disused for the more conve. prince or state, such as the princes of nient action of ejectment, and is never Germany, the republics of Venice, Ge. brought when that remedy can be used. noa, &c. go in quality of envoys, not There is much nice technical learning embassadors, and such a character only concerning it, which it would be vain to do those persons bear, who go from any attempt to abridge in a popular work. of the principal courts of Europe to Il derives different denominations from another, when the affair they go upon is

being

numerous.

not very solemn or important. There nineteen years, as the council of Nice are envoys orslinary and extraordinary, supposed they would do (when they fix. as well as embassadors ; they are equallyed the rule for the observation of Easter, the same under the protection of the and marked the new moons in the calenlaw of nations, and enjoy all the privi- dar for each year of the lunar cycle) then leges of embassadors, only differing from the golden number, multiplied by 11, them in this, that the same ceremonies would always give the epact. But in a are not performed to them.

Julian century, the new

moons antici. ENURE, in law, to take place or ef. pate, or happen earlier, than that countect, or be available, as a release made cil imagined they would by 8 of a day. to a tenant for a term of life shall enure

In a Gregorian common century, which to him in the reversion. EPACRIS, in botany, a genus of the they happen

is one day shorter than a Julian century, Pentandria Monogynia class and order.

of a day later, (1 dayCalyx five-parted; corolla funnel-form, og if). Now x3 = for the villous; nectariferous scales, growing to

three common centuries, but the germ ; capsule five-celled, five valv. subtracted, on account of the Gregorian ed; the partitions from the middle of the bissextile century, there will remain 4 valves; seeds minute and There are four species, natives of New

Therefore, in four Gregorian centuries, Zealand.

the new moons will happen later by is EPACT, a number arising from the

of a day, and the epacts must be de. excess of the common solar year above

creased accordingly. the lunar, whereby the age of the moon

At present the Gregorian epact is 11 may be found out every year.

See days short of the Julian epact; but the CHRONOLOGY. The excess of the solar quotient of the number of the centuries year above the lunar is 11 days; or the

divided by 4, which at this time is 4, mul. epact of any year expresses the num tiplied by man with the addition of the reber of days from the last new moon of mainder 1 multiplied by it, makes in all the old year, which was the beginning of but 18, or 7 days + is therefore if the present lunar year, to the first of January. The first year of the cycle of

i. e. 3 days + 1} must be added to comthe moon, the epaci is 0, because the plete the 11 days. Whence we have the Junar year begins with the solar. On following the second, the lunar year has begun 11 days before the solar year, therefore the

General rule for finding the Gregorian epact is 11. On the ihird, it has begun Epact for ever. Divide the centuries of twice 11 before the solar yeartherefore any year of the Christian æra by 4, (re. the epact is 22. On the fourth, it begins jecting the subsequent numbers ; multithree times 11 days sooner than the ply the remainder by 17, and to this prosolar year, the epact would therefore be duct add the quotient multipled by 43 : 33; but 30 days, being a synodical month,

divide the product + 86 by 25: multiply must that year be intercalated; or that the golden' number by 11, from which year must be reckoned to consist of subtract the last quotient; and rejecting ihirteen synodical months, and there re

the thirties, the remainder will be the mains three, which is the true epact of epact. the year; and so on to the end of the cycle, adding 11 to the epact of the last

Example for 1808. year, and always rejecting 30, gives the

18;9 2 epact of the present year. Thus, to ad. just the lunar year to the solar through

2 x 17 = 34 the whole of 19 years, 12 of them must

43 x 4 + 34 = 206 consist of 12 synodical months each, and

206 +86 ; 25 = 11 7 of 13, by adding a month of 30 days to

11 X 4 (Gold. No.) = 44

44 - 11 every year when the epact would exceed 30, and a month of 29 days to the last

=1-3 = Epact.

30 year of the cycle, which makes in all 209 days, i, e. 19x11; so that the intercalary or embolimxan years in this cycle the year 1900. Subtract 1 from the gold

A shorter rule for finding the epact until are 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 19.

en number, and multiplying the remain. If the new moons returned exactly at the same time after the expiration of have the epact.

der by 11, reject the thirties, and you

Example for the year 1808.

EPHEMERA, day.fly, in natural his. Golden Number 4.

tory, a genus of insects of the order Neu4-1X11 – 30=3= Epact.

roptera. Mouth without mandibles ;

feelers four, very short, filiform; antenEPAULE, in fortification, denotes the næ short, filiform ; above the eyes are shoulder of a bastion, or the place where two or three large stemmata ; wings its face and flank meet, and form the an. erect, the lower ones much shorter ; tail gle called the angle of the shoulder. See terminating in long bristles or bairs. Bastios.

These short-lived animals, of which there EPAULEMENT, in fortification, a are about twenty species, in two divi. work raised to cover sideways, is either sions, according as they bave two or of earth, gabions, or fascines, loaded with three hairs in the tail, are found every earth. The epaulements of the places of where about waters in the summer, and arras for the cavalry, at the entrance of in their perfect state seldom live more the trenches, are generally of fascines than a day or two, some of them not an mixed with earth.

hour, during which time they perform all EPAULETTES, in military dress, are the functions of life, and answer all the a sort of shoulder-knot. They are bariges ends of nature. The larva lives under of distinction worn on one or both shoul. water, and is eagerly sought after by ders, according to the rank of the wearer, trout and other fish: it is six-footed, acand for the same reason they are made tive, and furnished with a tail and six laeither of worsted, or of silver or gold teral fins or gilis; the pupa resembles lace. In France, all degrees of rank in the larvi, except in having rudiments of the army may be instantly known from future wings. The larva is altogether the epaulette ; but this is not the case

aquatic, the complete insect aerial. In here. Lately epaulettes have been intro- the former state it livestwo or three years ; duced into the navy, and in that service but as a perfect animal it survives but a the following are the gradations of rank very few hours, perishing in the course of as distinguished by them. Masters and the same evening that gives it birth. commanders have one epaulette on the The most common species in Europe is left shoulder: post captains under three the E. vulgata, or common May-fly, so years, one epaulette on the right shoul. plentiful in the early part of summer der, afterwards two epaulettes: rear ad. about the brinks of rivulets and stagnant mirals have one star on the strap of the waters. It is of a greenish colour, with epaulette, vice-admirals two stars, and transparent wings elegantly mottled with admirals three stars.

brown, and is furnished with three very EPHA, or Epuau, in Jewish antiquity, long black bristles. It Autters in the a measure for things dry, containing evening about the surface of the water; 1.0961 of a bushel. See MEASURE.

but during the day is generally seen in a EPHEDRA, in botany, a genus of the quiescent posture, with the wings closed, Dioecia Monodelphia class and order. and applied to each other in an upright Natural order of Coniferæ. Essential position. character: male, calyx of the ament two EPHEMERIDES, in literary history, cleft; corolla none; stamens seven; an an appellation given to those books or thers four inferior, three superior: fe. journals, which shew the motions and male, calyx two-parted, five-fold: corol. places of the planets for every day in the la none ; pistils two; seeds covered with year. It is from the tables contained in a berried calyx. There are two species; these ephemerides, that eclipses, and all viz. E. distachya, great shrubby horse the variety of aspects of the planets, are tail, or sea-grape, and E monostachya, found. small shrubby horse tail. These plants EPHIELIS, in botany, a genus of the Fary extremely. Some in the south of Octandria Monogynia class and order. Europe, are only a hand in height, Esential character: calyx five-parted; whilst others are three feet: they are petals five, with claws; nectary ten found in most of the southern parts of scales, two to each petal ; capsule obthe Russian dominions, from the Volga long, one celled, two-valved, two-seeded. to the Lena, and southwards to Persia There is but one species; viz. E. guiaand India. The berries are sweetish, mu nensis : this is a lofty tree growing in the cose, and leave a little heat in the throat: forests of Guiana, where it flowers in the they are eaten by the Russian peasants, month of October. and the wandering hordes of all Great EPIBATERIUM, in botany, a genus of Tartary

the Monoecia Hexandria class and or.

of

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der. Essential character: calyx double; did not deny the existence of a God, but outer six-leaved, small; inner three-leav. thought it beneath his majesty to concern ed, large; petals six, three outer, between himself with human affairs. He held him the calycine leaflets; three inner ; drupes a blessed immortal being, having no afthree, subglobular, mucronate, with three fairs of his own to take care of, and above permanent styles; inclosing a kidney medaling with those of others. See Atoform nut. There is only one species; viz. MIC PHILOSOPHY, E. pendulum.

As to his elbics, he made the supreme EPIC, or heroic poem, a poem express. good of man to consist in pleasure, and, ed in narration, torined upon a story part. consequently, supreme evil'in pain. Naly real and partly feigned; representing, and prompts us from our birth to procure

ture itself, says he, teaches us this truth, in a sublime style, some signal and for. tunate action, distinguished by a variety what ever gives us pleasure, and avoid of great events, to form the morals, and what gives us pain. "To this end he proaffect the mind with the love of heroic poses a remedy against the sharpness of virtue.

pain: this was to divert the mind from it, EPICHRYSUM, in botany, a genus

by turning our whole attention upon the the Cryptog.mia Fungi class and order. pleasures we have formerly enjoyed. He

held that the wise man must be happy, as Fungus rounded, concave; seeds globu. lar; tailless, attached to a branched thread long as he is wise ; that pain, not depriv. creeping within. There is but one spe. him of his bappiness.

ing him of his wisdom, cannot deprive cies; viz. E. argenteum.

EPICYCLE, in the ancient astronomy, EPICUREAN philosophy, the doctrine a little circle, whose centre is in the cir. or system of philosophy maintained by cumference of a greater circle ; or it is a Epicurus and his followers.

small orb or sphere, which, being fised in Epicurus, the Athenian, one of the the deferent of a planet, is carried along greatest philosophers of his age, was with it; and yet, by its own peculiar moobliged to Democritus for almost his tion, carries the planet fastened to it whole system, notwithstanding he piqued round its proper centre. himself upon deriving every thing from It was by means of epicycles, that Ptohis own fund. He wrote a great number lemy and his followers solved the various of books, which are made to amount to phenomena of the planets, but more espe. above 300. Though none of them are cially their stations and retrogradations. come down to us, no ancient philoso. The great circle they called the excen. pher's system is better known than his, tric or deferent, and along its circumfer: for which we are mostly indebted to the ence the center of the epicycle was con. poet Lucretius, Diogenes, Laertius, and ceived to move; carrying with it the Tully. His philosophy consisted of three planet fixed in its circumference, which parts, canonical, physical, and ethereal. in its motion downwards proceeded ac. The first was about the canons, or rules cording to the order of the signs, but in of judging. The censure which Tully moving upwards contrary to that order. passes upon him, for his despising logic, The highest point of a planet's epicycle will bold true only with regard to the they called apogee, and the lowest perilogic of the Stoics, which he could not

gee. approve of, it being too full of nicety and EPICYCLOID, in geometry, a curve quirk. Epicurus was not acquainted with generated by the revolution of the perithe analytical method of division and ar phery of a circle, ACE (Plate V Mis. gumentation, nor was he so curious in cel. fig. 4.) along the convex or concave modes and formation, as the Stoics. side of the periphery of another circle, Soundness and simplicity of sense, assist. D GB. ed with some natural reflections, was all The length of any part of the curve, his art. His search after truth proceed. that any given point in the revolving cired only by the senses, to the evidence of cle has described, from the time it touchwhich he gave so great a certainty, that ed the circle it revolved upon, shall be he considered them as an infallible rule to double the versed sine of half the arch of truth, and termed them the first natural which all that time touched the circle at light of mankind.

rest, as the sum of the diameters of the In the second part of his philosophy circles to the semidiameter of the rest. he laid down atoms, space, and gravity, ing circle, if the revolving circle moves as the first principles of all things. He upon the convex side of the resting cit.

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cle; but if upon the concave side, as the tinues, the sickness scarcely abates, but difference of the diameters to the semi. the mortality diminishes rapidly; so that diameter of the resting circle.

in the last number of rainy years the In the Philosoph. Transactions, No. number of deaths is at the minimum. 218, we have a general proposition for The change of a long dry season, whether measuring the areas of all cycloids and hot or cold, to a rainy one, appears to epicycloids, viz. The area of any cycloid bring about the temperature of air faor epicycloid is to the area of the gene. vourable to the production of great epirating circle, as the sum of double the demics. Some,' however, seem velocity of the centre and velocity of the speedily to succeed the predisposing state circular motion to the velocity of the of the air, others less so; or it may be, circular motion : and in the same propor that the state of the air favourable to tion are the areas of segments of those them exists at the very beginning of the curves to those of analogous segments of change, whilst the state favourable to the generating circle.

others progressively succeeds: of this last, EPIDEMIC. A contagious disease is however, Ďr. Sims is very uncertain. 30 termed that attacks many people at

Two infectious diseases, it appears, are the same season, and in the same place; hardly ever prevalent together; there. thus, putrid fever, plague, dysentery, fore, although the same distemperature &c. are often epidemic. Dr. James of air seems favourable to most epidemic Sims observes, in the Memoirs of the disorders, yet some must appear sooner, Medical Society of London, that there are others later, From observation and some grand classes of epidemics which books, the Doctor describes the order prevail every year, and which are pro in which these disorders have a tendency duced by the various changes of the sea

to succeed each other to be, plague, pesons. Thus, spring is accompanied by techial fever, putrid sore throat, with or inflammatory diseases; summer by com without scarlatina, dysentery, small-pox, plaints in the stomach and bowels; au measles, simple scarlatina, hooping-cough, tumn by catarrhs; and winter by inter and catarrh : “I do not mean by this," mittents. These being obviously pro says he, “that they always succeed each duced by the state of weather attendant other as above ; for often the individual upon them, other epidemics are suppos infection is wanting, when another takes ed analogous to them, and obedient to its place, until perhaps that infection is the same rules, which, on examination, imported from a place, which has been not being the case, an further scrutiny is so unfortunate as to have a co-incidence laid aside, perhaps too hastily.

of the two causes, without which it ap. The most natural and healthful seasons pears that no epidemic can take place : in this country are, a moderately frosty that is, a favourable disposition of the air, winter, showery spring, dry summer, and and that particular infection. Whenever rainy autumn; and whilst such prevail, it happens that one infectious disorder the wet part of them is infested by vastly takes the place that should have been the greatest proportion of complaints, more properly occupied by another, it but those not of the most mortal kind. A becomes much more virulent than it is long succession of wet seasons is accom. naturally, whilst the former, if it afterpanied by a prodigious number of diseases; wards succeeds, becomes milder in probut these being mild and tedious, the portion : this, perhaps, is the reason why number of deaths are not in proportion the same disorders, nay, the same apto the co-existent ailments. On the other pearance in a disorder, are attended hand, a dry season, in the beginning, is with much more fatality in one year than attended vith extremely few complaints, another." the body and mind both seeming invigor. EPIDENDRUM, in botany, a genus of ated by it; if, however, this kind of the Gynandria Diandria class and order. Weather last very long, towards the close Natural order of Orchidez. Essential of it a number of dangerous complaints character: nectary turbinate, oblique, respring up, which, as they are very short flex; corolla spreading; spur" none, in their duration, the mortality is much There are 124 species. This numerous greater than one would readily suppose, genus is obscure in its character, differ. from the few persons that are ill at any ences, and synonyms: for the flowers in one time : and as soon as a wet season dried specimens can hardly be unfolded ; succeeds a long dry one, a prodigious the plants are cultivated in gardens with sickness and mortality come on univers. difficulty; and the species have not been ally. So long as this wet weather con sufficiently described by authors, who

VOL. V.

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