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subsided. The plate, polished and cleans. certainty, and in opposition to the judg. ed with wbiting, is then placed to re. ment and preference of all true conceive the liquid, which being poured on noisseurs, aquatinted prints seem to init, is held slanting till the most fuid parts crease in value in the estimation of many have run oft'; it is afterwards laid to dry, persons, who forget that national taste in the progress of which the resin gra- should be improved by works of superinulates, and adheres firmly to the surface. or execution, and not vitiated by being The greatest precaution must be used constantly familiarized to those produced in going through this process, as the in- by means which set genius at defiance. terposition of dust, grease, hairs, or fi ENNEAGON, in geometry, a polygon bres of linen, will cause total derange. with nine sides. If each side be 1, the ment; and even then it is subject to most area will be 6, 18, &c. vexatious uncertainty, often compelling ENNEANDRIA, the name of the ninth the experienced artist to renew it to ob. class in Linnæus's sexual system, consisttain a good grain; in short, the weather ing of plants which have hermaphrodite and untoward accidents frequently ruin Aowers, with nine stamina or male orhis labours, though guarded against by gans. The orders, or secondary divisions every method his invention suggests. in this class, are three, being founded There is one advantage attending the on the number of the styles, seed buds, pouring the liquid ott, which is, that the
or female organs.
Laurus, tinus, and heaviest particies of the resin will float cassytha, have one style; rhubarb, (rheto the lower side, and consequeutly leave um,) has a triple stigma or summit, but a coarser grain there than above, much
scarce any style; flowering rush has six betier suited to the deep shades of a styles. The genera just enumerated are landscape than if the granulations had all that belong to the class Enneandria. been equally fine ; in large subjects the The first genus, laurus, is very extensive ; grain is sometimes laid coarse purposely comprehending the bay tree, cinnamon in the parts requiring it.
tree, campbor tree, benjamin tree, sasAlthough a fine grain has a very pleas- safras tree, and the avocado or avogato ing effect, and will bear close examina.
pear. tion, it has several disadvantages; for ENS martis, an old name given by this reason a medium description of gra- chemists to sal anamoniac sublimed with nulation is preferable, which, admitting iron filings, and therefore consisting of the aqua fortis freely to the copper, it muriate of ammonia mixed with a little bites deeper, and is less apt by acting la- muriate of iron. terally to force off the resin; besides, the Ess veneris, a similar preparation, in plate will of course afford a greater num which copper filings are substituted for ber of impressions.
those of iron. Some hints have been given already for ENSATÆ, (from enses, a sword,) the biting the plate; but however useful name of the sixth order in Linnæus's those may be found in particular instan Fragments of a Natural Method, conces, there are others which can only be sisting of plants with sword-shaped extracted from close application and ex. leaves. periment, and those are often varied in
ENSIFORM, in general, something their results: as an illustration, we may resembling a sword, ensis : thus we find suppose an artist provided with several mention of ensiformn leaves, ensiform carpieces of copper granulated, and trying tilage, &c. each successively by his watch with spi ENSIGN, in the military art, a banner rits of nitre diluted to the state of the air under which the soldiers are ranged, acat the commencement of his operations, cording to the different companies or how many minutes are necessary to pro. places they belong to. The European duce one tint, how many for a second, ensigns are pieces of taffety with various &c. granting him two hours for his ex. figures, arms, and devices, painted on periment; during this interval a violent them in different colours: the Turkish shower of rain may occur, which will im ensigns are horses' tails. mediately affect the acid, by weakening Enston is also the officer that carries its properties in the same proportion as the colours, being the lowest commissait is observed to be dissolved by a bu sioned officer in a company of foot, subormid atmosphere : thus it appears, a result dinate to the captain and lieutenant. It obtained on a clear dry day will not suit a is a very honourable and proper post for rainy one, and vice versa.
a young gentleman on his first coming inIn opposition to this discouraging un to the army; he is to carry the colours,
both in assault, day of battle, &c. and the muscles are affixed to the internal should noi quit them but with his life ; surface of the skin, which is a substance he is always to carry them bimself on his more or less strong, and sometimes very left shoulder, only on a march he may hard and horny; they do not breathe like have them carried by a soldier. If the larger animals, by lungs or gills situated ensign is killed, then the captain is to in the upper part of the body; but by a carry the colours in his stead.
sort of spiracles distributed in a series or ENTABLATURE, in architecture, is row on each side the whole length of the that part of an order which rests on the abdomen; these are supposed to commu. capital of a column, and comprehends the nicate with a continued chain, as it were, architrave, frieze and cornice.
of lungs, or something analogous to them, ENTAIL, in law, signifies fee-tail, or distributed throughout the whole length fee intailed See Estate.
of the body; the head is furnished with a ENTIERTIE denotes the whole, in pair of what are termed antennæ, or contradistinction to moiety, which de- horns, which are extremely different in notes the half; and a bond, damages, &c. different tribes, and which by their strucare said to be entire, when they cannot ture, &c. form a leading character in the be apportioned.
institution of the genera into which inENTIRE tenancy, signifies a sole pos sects are divided. session in one man.
Writers on natural history formerly in. ENTOMOLOGY is that branch of na cluded snails, worms, and the smaller ani. tural history that treats of insects. The mals, or animalcules, in general, among study of insects has sometimes been ri. insects: these are now more properly diculed as unworthy the attention of men placed among the tribe vermes, or wormof science ; for this, however, there is no like animals. Late writers have extendjust reason; though inferior in point of ed this still further, and have very promagnitude, yet they surpass, in variety of perly excluded almost the entire Linnæan structure and singularity of appearance, order of Aptera, forming of it a distinct all the larger branches of the animal class, under the name of Crustacea. In. world. No one can examine with an at sects have also been denominated blood. tentive eye the subjects of this branch of less animals, which modern discoveries science without surprise ; the great va.
have shewn to be contrary to fact : their riety of forms, the nice adaptation of blood is generally a colourless sanies. their parts to the situation in which each Some of them, as the cimex lectularius, happens to be placed, may excite the have been frequently used, with the miamazement of the curious and intelligent croscope, to exhibit in a striking manner mind The same power and wisdom the circulation of the blood. In this inwhich are manifested in the order, har sect, with a good glass, the vibrations mony, and beauty of the heavenly bodies, and contractions of the arteries may be are equally shown in the formation of the distinctly observed. minutest insect; each has received that Most insects are oviparous; of course, mechanism of body, those peculiar in.
the first state in which insects appear is stincts, and is made to undergo those dif that of an ovum or egg. This relates to ferent changes, which fit it for its destin the generality of insects, for there are ed situation, and enable it to perform its some examples of viviparous insects, as proper functions. The utility of many in in the genera Aphis, Musca, &c. From sects, either in their living or dead state, the egg is hatched the insect in its second as the bee, the crab, the silk-worm, co or caterpillar state ; this second state has chineal insect, (see Apis, Coccus, &c.) been usually known by the name of eruca, renders them interesting and important; but Linnæus has changed it to that of besides, tho' diminutive in point of size, LARVA, which see; considering it as a they are, in regard to numbers, unques sort of masked form, or disguise, of the tionably the most distinguished of the insect in its complete state. The larvæ works of nature; they are to be found in of insects differ very much from each every situation, in water, in air, and in the other, according to the several tribes to bowels of the earth ; they live in wood, which they belong : those of the butterfly upon animals, decayed vegetables, and and moth tribe (phalæna) are generally all kinds of flesh, and in every state of its known by the name of caterpillars; those existence down to the most putrid. of the beetle (scarabæus,) except such as
The general characters by which in- inhabit the water, are of a thick, clumsy sects are distinguished are the following: form. The larvæ of the locust, or grassthey are furnished with six or more feet; hopper, (gryllus,) do not differ very VOL. V.
much in appearance from the complete cessary to enumerate and explain the insect, except being without wings. The terms given to the different parts, and the larvæ of fies, bees, (musca, apis,) &c. most remarkable of the epithets applied are generally known by the name of inag to them by entomologists. The body is gols, and are of thick short form. Those divided into head, trunk, abdomen, and of water beetles (dyriscus) are of highly extremities. singular forms, and differ, perhaps, more 1. Caput, the head, is in insects, as well from that of the complete inseci than any as in the vertebral animals, the principal others, except those of the butterfly tribe. repository of the senses, and contains Some insects undergo no change of shape, that most important organ, the brain : but are hatched from the egg complete externally it is furnished with eyes; stem. in all their parts, and they undergo no mata ; antennæ; clypeus; vertex; mouth; farther alteration than that of casling front; gula. their skin from time to time, till they ac Eyes, are situated on each side of the quire the complete resemblance of the head, and differ much in form and colour parent animal. In the larvæ state most in the different insects, and may be coninst cts are peculiarly voracious, as in sidered amongst the most surprising of many of the common caterpillars. In their nature's works; they are not, as might be perfect state some insects, as butterflies, at first supposed, mere hemispherical are satisfied with the lightest nutriment, bodies of plane and simple surfaces, but while others devour animal and vegetable examination proves them to be composed subsiances with a considerable degree of of an imniense assemblage of highly avidity. When the larva is about to wrought hexagonal fascets, each furnishchange into the crysalis or pupa state, it ed with its proper optic nerve, retina, &c. ceust's to feed, and having placed itself in complete for vision: the number of these some quiet situation, lies still for several fasceis differs in different species; in the hours, and then, by a sort of effort, it di eye of the common fy 8,000 bare been vests itself of its external skin, and imme. counted, and in that of ihe libellula or diately appears in the different form of a dragon fly about 12,000. chrysalis or pupa; in this state, likewise, Stemmata are hemispherical bodies the insects of different genera differ al placed upon the vertex, and are supposmost as much as the larva. In most of ed to perform the office of eyes. The the beetle tribe it is furnished with short antennæ are two articulated moveable legs, capable of some degree of motion, processes, placed on the head; they are though very rarely exerted. In the but.. either, 1. Setacea, setaceous, i. e. like a terfly tribe it is destitute of legs; but in bristle, when they taper gradually from the locust tribe it differs very little from their base to their point. 2. Clavatæ, clathe perfect insect, except in not having vated, i.e. club-shaped, when they grow the wings complete. In most of the fly gradually thicker from their base to their tribe it is perfectly oval, without any ap- point. 3. Filiformes, filiform, i.e.threadparent motion or distinction of parts. The shaped, when they are of an equal thickpupa of the bee is not so shapeless as that ness throughout the whole of their length. of fies, exhibiting the faint appearance of 4. Moniliformes, moniliform, i.e. of the limbs. Those of the dragon-fly (libellula) form of a necklace, when they are of an differ most widely from the appearance equal thickness throughout, but formed of the complete insect; from the pupa of a series of knobs, resembling a string emerges the insect in its ultimate form, of beads. 5. Capitatæ, capitate, when from which it never changes, nor re. they grow thicker towards the point, and ceives any farther increase of growth. terminate in a knob or head. 6. Fis
Different naturalists have attempted to siles, fissile, i.e. cleft, when they are capiarrange insects into families and gene- tate, and have the head or knob divided ra, particularly the celebrated Linnæus, longitudinally into three or four parts or whose arrangement may be thus explain- laminæ. 7. Perfoliatæ, perfoliated, when ed. He has formed them into seven the head or knob is divided horizontally. families or orders, composing his sixth 8. Pectinatæ, pectinated, i, e. resembling class of animals, Insecta: he defines an a comb, when they have a longitudinal insect, a small animal, breathing through series of hairs projecting from them, in pores on its sides, furnished with movea form of a comb. 9. Barbatæ, barbed, ble antennæ and many feet, covered with when they have little projections or barbs either a hard crust or a hairy skin. As in- placed on their sides: they are either troductory to the distinguishing marks longiores, longer than the body; breof the orders and genera, it will be ne viores, shorter than the body ; or, met
diocres, of the same length with the Ligula, a soft instrument, coriaceous body
at the base, often bifid at the tip, and reCuvier has shewn that the organs of tractile; this part is found only in insects hearing are placed at the base of the provided with mandibles. antenuiæ iu the crustacea, such as crabs Galæ, casque, two membranaceous, in. and lobsters, and from analogy many na articulate pieces, placed one on each side turalists have supposed them to be simi- of the mouth in some insects of the larly situated in the true insects; this hemiptera and neuroptera orders, and in may probably be correct, but it has not conjunction with the lips covering the yet been proved, and must not therefore mouth; this part is by some considered be assumed.
as an anterior palpi, or an exterior diviClypeus, the covering of the head in sion of the jaws. the beetle tribe ; it extends from the eyes, In some insects the mouth is elongated often projecting over the mouth. into a tube, or placed at the end of a pro
Vertex, the top of the head above the jcction of the head, and is then either a front.
lingua, proboscis, haustellum, rostellum, Front, this term is applied to the anterior part of the head of most insects, Lingua, tongue, soft, flexible, tubular, and is analogous to the clypeus of the involuted, like the spring of a watch, beetles.
usually obtuse at its termination, and Gula, throat, underneath the head, sup- placed under the head between the palpi porting the lip.
of the butterflies and moths. Mouth, is situated in the head, rarely Proboscis, trunk, soft, retractile, inarin the breast, and affords so great a
ticulate, labiated at the extremity, and is variety of characters, that the celebrated peculiar to the flies; the common fly afFabricius founded upon them his entire furds a good example of it. system of arrangement; the principal and Haustellum, sucker, composed of very most obvious parts are, the palpii, mandi. fine and rigid filaments, enclosed in a bulæ, labrum, labium, ligula, maxillæ, and bivalve sheath, and is peculiar to the galeæ.
cinices, and some of the Hies. Palpi, or feelers, are articulated fila. Rostellum, a bill, or beak, coriaceous, ments of different forms, sometimes re. articulate, and inclosing the haustellum. sembling antennæ, placed in the mouth, Rostrum, a prolongation of the head, either on the jaws or lip; they are two, terminated by the mouth, as in the cur. or four, or six, in number, and are either culios, &c. anterior, intermediate, or posterior, or,
Some of these terms are not used by according to Latreille, labial or maxillary. some authors as here defined ; and in Considered in relation to those parts upon deed so unsettled are many entomologiwhich they are situated, they generally cal terms, that the student is often very furnish good generic characters.
much perplexed by the various applicaMandibulæ, mandibles, two horny curv.
tions of them. ed pieces, placed one on each side of the II. Truncus, the trunk, to which the mouth, moving laterally, and used by the legs are attached, is situated between the insect either to seize its food, or as wea
head and the abdomen ; it is divided into, pons in its combats.
1. The thorax, or chest, which is the Maxillæ, jaws, two horny or submem- superior part. 2. Scutellum, i. e. small branaceous pieces, placed one under each shield or escutcheon, separated from it mandible, generally ciliated with hair, or by a suture, on the posterior part. 3. dentate on the inner side, and always pal- The breast and sternum, wbich is the inpigerous in those insects that have more
ferior part. than one pair of palpi.
III. The abdomen, that part which con. Labrum, or as it is sometimes termed tains the stomach, intestines, and other labium superius, upper lip, a transverse viscera, consists of several annular segmoveable piece, placed immediately be- ments; it is perforated on the sides with low or underneath the clypeus and above spiracula, or breathing-holes; the upper the mandibles.
part of it is termed tergum, or back; the Labium, lip, termed by some entymo- inferior part venter, or belly; the poer logists labium inferius, and by others terior part anus. mentum, or chin, a horny substance,
IV. Artus, the extremities, are the sometimes truncate, and terminates the mouth; beneath it supports the posterior
wings, legs, and tail. palpi, and serves as a sheath for the (1.) Alæ, the wings, are two or four ; tongue.
they are either, 1, Plana, i.e. plain, suck
as cannot be folded up by the insect: or, Cursorii, formed for running. 2. Salta2. Plicatiles, or folding, such as can be torii, formed for leaping 3. Natatorij, folded up by the insect at pleasure. 3. formed for swimming. Erectæ, erect, such as have their superior
(III.) Cauda, the tail, which terminates surfaces brought into contact, and stand
the abdomen, is 1. Solitaria, i. e. single. upright when the insect is at rest. 4.
2. Bicornis, i.e. two-horned, or double. Patentes, spreading ; such as are extend
3. Simplex, simple, i. e. unarmed. 4. ed horizontally. 5. Incumbentes, incumbent; such as rest on the upper part of Armata, i, e. furnished : 1. with forceps
or pincers : 2. with furca, a fork : 3. with the abdomen 6. Deflexæ, bent down;
one or more setæ, or bristles : 4 with an such as are partly incumbent, but have
aculeus, or sting, either smooth or barb. their exterior edge inclined towards the
ed. A sting is a weapon frequently hol. sides of the abdomen 7. Reversæ, re
low, with which some insects are furnishversed ; such as are incumbent, but in. verted. 8. Dentaræ, such as have their ed, and through which they discharge a edges notched or serrated. 9. Causlatæ, poison into the wound they inflict. such as have processes extended from The sexes of insects are commonly two, their exiremities like a tail. 10 Reticu. male and female. Neuters are to be met latæ, netted; when the vessels of the with among those insects which live in wings put on the appearance of nel.work. swarms, such as ants, bees, &c. 11. Pictæ, painted ; such as are marked
The majority of insects are observed with coloured spots. bands, streaks, lines, or dots. 12. Notatæ, marked with specks. of their lives in the space of a year or
to be annual, finishing the whole term 13. Ornatæ, adorned with little eyes, or less, and many do not live half that time; circular spots, containing a spot ferent colour in their centre: the central nay, there are some which do not sur: spot is termed pupil : the exterior one is is to be understood only of the animals
vive many hours; but this latter period called iris; this may happen either in the when in their complete or ultimate form, primary or secondary wings, on their op- for the larvæ of such as are of this short per or under surfaces: the superior wing duration have in reality lived a very long is called primary, and the inferior secon
time under water, of which they are na. dary, to avoid confusion, as they may be tives; and it is observed, that water in. at times reversed. The elytra are hard shells, occupying the place of the upper than land insects. Some few insects,
sects, in general, are of longer duration wings. They are for the most part move
however, in their complete state, are able, and are either, 1. Truncata, trun. supposed to live a considerable time, as cated, when shorter than the abdomen, beés for instance ; and it is well known and terminated by a transverse line. 2.
that some of the butterfly tribe, though Spinosa, or prickly, when their surfaces are covered with sharp points or prickles. yet survive that season in a state of tor,
the major part perish before winter, will 3. Serrata, serrated, when their edges pidity, and again appear and fly abroad are notched. 4. Scabra, rough, when their surface resembles a file. 5. Striata, also thought to live a considerable time,
in the succeeding spring; spiders are striated, when marked with slender lon.
and some species of the genus cancer gitudinal furrows. 6. Porcata, ridged, when marked with elevated ridges. 7. ihe common lobster, &c. : it should be
are said to live several years, especially Sulcata, furrowed. 8. Punctata, marked observed, however, that these animals, in with dots. 9. Fastigiata, when formed
the opinion of some modern naturalists, like the roof of a house. The hemelytra, as it were half-elytra, partaking partly of insects
properly so called. Linnæus bas
constitute a different tribe of beings from the nature of crustaceous shells, and divided insects into seven orders. 1. Co. membranaceous wings, being formed of
LEOPTERA; II. HEMIPTERA; III. LEPIDOPan intermediate substance. Halteres, or
TERA; IV. NEUROPTERA; V. Hymenop. poisers, are small orbicular bodies placed
TERA; VI. DIPTENA; VII. APTERA, which on stalks, situated under the wings of in
see : and from these the several genera sects, of the order Diptera.
are referred to. (11.) Pedes, the legs, are divided into, 1. Femur, or thigh, that part which is ENTRY, in law, is the taking possession joined to the trunk. 2. Tibia, or shank. of lands or tenements, where the party 3. Tarsus, or foot. 4. Ungues, hooks or has a title of entry, or an immediate nails. 5. Manus, (chela,) hands or claws, right to possess them. This may be in simple, with a moveable thumb, as in person, or by attorney, or is an entry in the crab. The hind legs are termed, 1. law, which is merely the making con