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made by collecting fresh stable:dung, or tanner's bark, while capable of affording a great degree of heat. Over these beds, which are sometimes framed in withwoodwork for masonry, fine soil is laid to the depth of four, five, or six inches, or in some cases more, and glass frames are fitted as covers, in such manner as to open to any desired extent. When the first heat has subsided, and the temperature is such as not to scorch, the seeds of melons, cucumbers, &c. may be sown, or the pots, containing curious plants, may be partly buried, so as to obtain a greater degree of heat than is afforded by the air without the frame. In this manner, the most tender exotics may be propagated ; indeed many become gradually so inured to our climate, as to be perfectly habituated ; and after fifteen or twenty generations (or seasons, if not very perishable) may in some instances be treated the same as our tender indigenous plants. Such, however, as are not disposed so to assimilate, must be preserved in greenhouses, or eventually be kept in hothouses during the cold months; being there confined in an artificial atmosphere, highly rarefied by means of a fire, which warms a variety of flues that every where intersect the walls of the building. See Hot-house. Having said thus much, in general terms, regarding the trees, shrubs, and vegetables, ordinarily appropriated to gardens and pleasure-grounds, we shall give the reader a brief code of instruction as to the seasons and modes appropriate to each individually, arranging the whole in form of a calendar.
Kitchen-garden. Make up your hot-beds for melons, cucumbers, &c.; for early roduce, select the romana and cantaoupe melons, and the early prickly cuThe plants will rise in a week, but you should never keep them so hot as to steam the glasses. Sow successively, in case of accidents, to which this class are very subject. If the beds cool too much, lay fresh litter all around them : or, if practicable, rake out some of the old litter, and fill up with very fresh dung; avoiding much pressure. The outside dressing will require to be changed every fortnight, as the heat will in that time be
such shoots just beyond their second joints. In such beds you may force asparagus, lettuce, small-salading, love apples, radishes and an infinite variety of vegetables for early use : this will, however, require extensive and numerous beds. You may in this month, if the weather be mild, sow parsley, beans, and peas, spinach, carrots, &c. but do not depend on their succeeding: they should all be sown on warm borders. Plant out cabbages, for summer use, and in all the varieties for seed. For this latter purpose, you may keel in any old stems that have good sprouts on them, they will furnish excellent seed, plant them in an open part, in a deep, well-worked soil, highly manured ; your cauliflower plants, that stand under glasses, should be clean picked from all decayed leaves, and be well weeded; give them air occasionally during mid-day, when the sun is out; but close up well at night, so as to shut out the frost; if intensely cold, cover with matting, straw, &c. earth your celery up well in dry, open weather, breaking the earth very small, and applying it gently ; remove all the rotten tops, by twisting them off very carefully; your endive should also be picked, and tied up, in fair weather. If the plants appear wet, and injured in the heart, take them up, and, after hanging for two or three days, by their roots, to drain, transplant them into clean, well prepared-beds, earthing them up half way of their leaves, but taking care that no soil be admitted within them. Artichokes should be attended to, and well landed up ; also be supplied with long litter, to preserve them from frost; cover your mushroom-beds well for the same reason. In the Fruit-garden, finish the prunin of your apple and pear-trees, training fi the shoots that are to remain, at full six inches asunder; you must also prune and nail your plum and cherry trees, as well as your peaches, apricots, and nectarines, provided the weather is mild, else it were better deferred to a more favourable time; however, you need not be apprehensive from slight frosts. Always loosen the whole tree before you begin to prune, so that you may remedy any defects, and be enabled to make a more perfect arrangement, cutting out all useless wood. You may prune vines when the weather permits, keeping only the shoots of the last season, no others being bearers. Gooseberries and currants must be trimmed with a bold hand, to allow free access of sun and air; keep only the wood of one or two years. Raspberries must be looked to, cutting away all but the young shoots; these should be shortened about onethird of their length. You may now set out the cuttings from gooseberries and currants, and the young shoots of raspberries; plant at least four feet asunder every way, else your fruit will be small, and deficient in flavour: choose an open situation and a free soil. You must now prepare ground for plantations of fruit-trees, choosing good situations; your wall and espalier trees ought to have ample room, not less than twenty feet asunder : in a few years they will cover well, and bear rich crops; standards ought to be full forty feet apart : if the weather proves severe, defer this work until it mode rates, and look well to your old trees, covering their roots with litter, and supporting newly-planted standards with stakes, leaning on hay-bands, so as not to injure the bark. Prune old standards, and begin the forcing of hot-house plants by closing well up, and keeping a temperature of from seventy-five to eighty degrees, Fahrenheit. As the fruit begins to ripen, allow water in moderation. Your strawberries will particularly come under notice in the forcing time ; and all the potted plants must be placed in hotbeds for that purpose. In your Flower-garden, see that the auriculas, carnations, hyacinths, and tulips, be well sheltered from inclement weather. You may now plant tulips, anemones, ranunculuses, crocuses, jonquils, narcissuses, hyacinths, and all other bulbs; or you may set the roots on mantle and chimney-pieces, on glasses filled with water. Let all your perennial fibrousrooted plants, such as double wall-flowers, double stocks, double sweet-williams, chrysanthemums, &c. &c. that are in pots, or under frames, be carefully attended to. Cover seedlings and tender plants, not omitting to give air in mild weather. You should now prune and dig between your flowering shrubs; and may plant out roses, honeysuckles, lilacs, laburnums, privets, jasmines, and a great variety of the hardy class, observing to arrange them tastefully, according to their colours, foliage, &c. and setting those which are tallest, when full grown, in the back part, whereby you will not obscure the lesser kinds. All hardy shrubs may now be propagated by layers; and suckers may be removed from roses, syringas, aspiracas, lilacs, &c. into rows, where they should stand for about two years, and then be set out to where they are to remain : cuttings of hardy deciduous shrubs will now proceed.
Trim your grass-walks and lawns, throw. ing down worm-casts, and rolling with a wooden roller. You may at this season pare and lay turf. In dry weather, lay down and roll the gravel-walks that were ridged; plant thrift and box edgings, if not done in October or Novernber. Forest and ornamental trees should now be planted on dry soils; these should, properly, be of the hardy kinds. Hedges may be planted or plashed.
In the Mursery. Transplant and prune your forest-trees, particularly those that are deciduous, if the weather admits; for ever-greens the weather must be settled: prune and transplant flowering shrubs; plant fruit-tree stocks, and prepare for extensive plantings and sowings; in frosty weather carry dung, &c. losing no time; take great care of young and seedling trees; propagate by cuttings
In the Hot-house. Your pines will require great care ; you may also raise kidney beans, cucumbers, strawberries, &c. and have abundance of flowering plants therein.
Kitchen-garden. Cucumbers and melons will be sown with better success in this, than in the former month; but take care they have not too much heat, as they will be apt to wither: to prevent this, let them be sown or set upon little hillocks, or ridges, which will expose a greater surface to the air; stop, i.e. pinch off, the young plants at the first joints of the first shoots, so as to cause their sending out many fruitful runners; do this when they have two rough leaves, not longer than a shilling ; force asparagus in hot-heds, breaking off the shoots with your finger, avoiding to cut them ; kidney-beans, small salading, &c. may proceed, as shewn in the last month’s directions; give your cauliflower plants air, and by the end of the month you may plant out to two feet asunder, taking care to cover with haulm, &c.; if the weather comes on very cold, leave one plant under each glass; sow cauliflower seed, transplant cabbages, sow cabbage and savoy seeds, also early celery, radishes of sorts, spinach, lettuces, carrots, parsnips, beets, leeks, onions, beans, peas, pot-herbs, potatoes, horseradish, turnips, liquorice, &c. for a general crop; taking care to break the soil well, and to choose favourable times for putting in the seeds, or sets.
In the Fruit-garden. Continue to prune fruit-trees, and especially vines, dress
strawberry beds, plant fruit-trees, dig the borders, graft, and go on forcing the early flowers and fruits. In the Flower-garden. You may sow tender annuals on hot-beds, during the early part of the month; and towards the end all the hardy annuals; plant out the hardy fibrous rooted plants, such as primroses, violets, polyanthuses, &c.; dress your auriculas, and sow their seed; also those of the polyanthus, in rich, light earth, very shallow ; transplant your carnations, defend bulbous roots, prune flowering shrubs, plant out such as are wanted, together with evergreens; plant hedges, lay turf, trim lawns and walks, set box, &c. for edgings. In the Mursery. Propagate by cuttings, suckers, and layers; transplant layers, flowering shrubs, stocks to graft on, fruit and forest trees; sow seeds of ditto, and head down budded stocks. In the Green-house. Look to the shrubs, &c.; giving air, and water, in proportion to the mildness of the weather. You may now trim myrtles, oranges, &c. to any intended form. In the Hot-house. The pines will demand much assiduity; for an improper degree of heat will at this period injure them very considerably: keep up to 75 degrees,
by means of fresh bark to be mixed with
that in which the pots were plunged. Moderate watering will contribute both to growth and flavour. Keep your exotics very clean from decayed leaves, and wash dust, &c. from the leaves; above all things, remove cob-webs wherever they appear; and, if necessary, fumigate, to destroy insects, which will now begin to shew themselves. Fresh air must now and then be admitted, when the weather admits. Your strawberries, kidney-beans, cucumbers, roses, &c. will now get fast forward; but you must guard against frost, which would do great injury, if your fires were neglected.
now be transplanted. Sow savoys, and lettuces, also spinach, leeks, onions, borecole, radishes of sorts, carrots, and parsnips, all on good soil, well prepared, and made very fine; fork and dress up your asparagus, and plant out where wanted; you may also sow some seed; dress your artichokes, and plant out; set beans for a full crop, also peas; earth up any that are grown sufficiently; sow turnips for a full crop, also celery, small salad, and all the tribe of medical and pot-herbs; nasturtiums may be sown very early in this month; capsicums should be in a hot-bed, and be set out as the weather grows warm, after they have four leaves; if six, or eight, the better. Love-apples will require the same treatment; kidney-beans, potatoes, and Jerusalem artichokes, should not be omitted. Set slips of rosemary, rue, chives, mint; and let your garlic, scallions, cardoons, &c. now be committed to the soil. In the Fruit-garden. Prune your figtrees, and plant also where they are wanted; if your wall fruit-trees have not been trimmed, lose no time in attending to them ; some will be in bloom, if the season favours; cover such with mats at night, to keep the frost from injuring them. Fruit-trees in general may yet be planted out, but no time should be lost; and the borders in which they stand should now be well dug. Prune vines, and propagate by means of cuttings. It is exedient to remark, in this place, that it i. been recently proposed to graft vines upon elders at this season, under the idea of producing early fruit, and of giving the clusters more time for ripening; the suggestion is assuredly ingenious, and merits trial. Dress your strawberries well, and run light whisps of straw at right angles under the foliage, so as to support the leaves, and to retain the moisture in the soil. Continue to force your early fruit, taking care to keep up fires every night. In the Flower-garden. You will find ample employment in setting out your early aunuals, sowing tender annuals on hotbeds, and the more hardy sorts in warm borders. Fresh earth must be given to plants in pots; the chrysanthemums, auriculas, carnations, hyacinths, &c. will now demand care, as will all your curious flowers. Now plant anemones, and ranunculuses, and sow the fibrous-rooted annuals and biennials; transplant perennials, rune your shrubs, hoe and rake your §: dig where necessary, and clean your clumps; plant deciduous flowering shrubs, and forest-trees; transplant your cvergreens, remove roses, plant edgings and hedges, clean your garden wall, clear your gravel walks from rubbish, lay your turf where wanted, and roll your lawns very smooth in dry weather. In the Nursery. Graft on proper stocks, sow the seeds of deciduous trees and shrubs, propagate also by cuttings, sow hardy ever greens; weed the whole carefully, and water seedlings. In the Green-House. Moderate the heat, by admitting fresh air in mild weather; if frosty, or very cold, keep all shut close; trim your orange-trees, myrtles, &c. into shape; shift such plants as require larger pots, give fresh earth to the roots in general; sow the seeds of exotics, and of oranges for stocks. In the Hot-House. Your pines will begin to shew fruit; therefore keep up the heat, water these plants frequently, and, in favourable days, admit a little air.
Kitchen-garden. Keep up your hot-beds for cucumbers and melons, allowing the . plants air daily; give water occasionally, and remove decayed leaves; if the sun is very powerful, put mats, &c. over your glasses; impregnate the female flowers, by means of the fine powder on the antherae of the male blossoms, this will insure an early crop, and should be done on the day the flowers first open; make hot-bed ridges, to receive the plants intended to be set out under bell or hand glasses; sow melon and cucumber seeds for a late crop, plant out your lettuces, sow small salading, radishes, turnips, spinach, kidney-beans, brocoli, onions, leeks, cardoons, carrots, parsnips, potherbs, capsicums, love-apples, scorzonera, salsafy, purslane, beans, peas, gourds, and pompions; set potatoes for a late crop, and plant slips of pot and sweet herbs; destroy weeds, and water young plants when the weather is dry.
In the Fruit-garden. You may plant trees, propagate vines, summer-dress the old ones, protect the blossoms of wallfruit, rub off useless buds, and thin the fruit where too numerous; you may yet prune, and graft, or bud; destroy insects and weeds, clean your strawberries very carefully, and clear them from runners, except what you keep for planting out in June; water these plants well, or they will bear but poorly.
In the Pleasure-garden. You may yet sow tender annuals on hot-beds; the more hardy will succeed with less heat, and the hardy will only require warm clean borders: your bulbous roots will be in
blossom, and must be amply watered; in very hot weather you must shade them, or they will soon pass off; carnations and polyanthuses may yet be sown; those in pots will demand attention ; transplant fibrous rooted perennials, sow some also: set your tuberoses in hot-beds, or in hothouses; pay attention to your auriculas, and save their seed very carefully ; sow balm of Gilead, plant out ever greens and flowering shrubs, propagate them ; roll your grass walks often, and, if too luxuriant, mow them; plant box and thrift edgings, put sticks to your flowering plants, roll your gravel-walks after turning them, and destroy weeds every where.
In the Mursery. Finish sowing ever. greens, flowering-shrubs, and tree-seeds; water your seed-beds, transplant evergreens, examine your grafts, and make new ones early in the month.
In the Green-house. Give air to your plants, water and shift into larger pots or tubs, put fresh earth, cleanse the plants, head down myrtles, &c. inarch, and propagate by seeds and cuttings.
In the Hot-house. Your pine-apples will demand daily attendance, and must be liberally supplied with water, keep the heat well up, admit air occasionally in suitable weather; stove exotics may now be propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers, or suckers.
Kitchen-garden. As your melons and cucumbers, will be getting fast forward, you must carefully keep up the heat of your beds by fresh linings of dung, and screen from cold at night; in the day, give air at suitable times, and occasionally water moderately. You will now, in all probability, have occasion to raise your glasses, so as to give room; do this by putting bricks, &c. under the frames. As the melons set, place a tile under each, else the damp of the bed will stain and render the lower part unsightly. You can now sow cucumbers for pickling : this may be done in a free soil, fully exposed to the sun. At night cover the young plants with straw, &c. You may also sow gourds, &c. This is a good time for a full crop of kidney beans, and, if fair, for the scarlet runners: put in small salading, spinach, turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions, for succeeding crops; taking care to weed and water those for. merly sown : set out cabbages and savoys; screen your cauliflowers from the sun, by
pending in the leaves over the flowers, which will now be forming: water these lants well, making a trench, or basin, or that purpose: transplant cauliflowers, and sow for a Michaelmas crop. Sow brocoli, borecole, beans, peas, &c. and stick the peas which are ready; top off your blossoming beans; sow endive, for an early crop, propagate pot-herbs and aromatics by cuttings, &c. Support seedling plants, prick out celery, and sow some, also some radishes; thin your cardoons, and weed with diligence: if the weather proves dry, water liberal
In the Fruit-garden. Look to your wall trees, protect from birds and insects, which by the end of the month will be pecking at your early fruits; trim the shoots and leaves of all fruit-trees, to allow the fruit sun and air, but without scorching ; thin your wall-fruit where too close or abundant; destroy snails, keep your borders clean, fumigate, to kill small insects, water new planted trees; clear away superfluous clusters from your vines, look to your strawberries, watering them amply ; examine grafted trees. In the Flower-garden. Be attentive to your bulbous flowers, take up such as have lost their leaves, and lay them to season; your carnations will require care, trim off all puny flowers ; your tender annuals must be again removed to a fresh hot-bed; those sown last month may now be pricked out: the less tender may be set out into open spaces, if the weather is warm, choosing moist weather for that operation. You may sow hardy annuals, and propagate double flowers by slips: preserve seedling bulbs from too greatheat. When your auriculas have done flowering, remove them to the open air; plant tuberoses for the next year, transplant perennial flowers, and sow some of their seeds; destroy weeds, mow your lawns, and keep your gravel walks perfectly clean. In the JWursery. Water seedlings, and shade them, if hot weather; propagate evergreens by layers, and look over your grafts. In the Green-house. A free circulation should be allowed, and the plants be gradually introduced to the open air; remove decayed parts, and shift into larger vessels where wanted; water freely, and propagate by layers and cuttings. In the Hot-house. Your pines will want water often, and fresh air occasionally; you must look to your exotics, and VOL. V.
propagate by seeds, cuttings, suckers, C.
Kitchen-garden. Your melons must be protected from excessive heat by mats over the glasses, which they will now bear to be well raised, water them and your cucumbers; all under bell-glasses should have free range; thin out the gerkin plants, leaving four in each hole, setting out the rest as before directed into ridges, &c. You may yet sow for pickling; transplant celery into trenches for blanching, also endive; set out lettuces, and sow more seed; sow radishes, and small salading; prick out cauliflowers, and pay attention to those now getting forward, save some seed from the best heads; sow a full crop of turnips for autumn; weed and loosen about your carrots and parsnips, also your beets; thin and clear your onions; transplant leeks, brocoli, and borecole; plant kidney and running beans; sow peas and . beans for late crops, and a full crop of cabbages and savoys for winter. Cut no asparagus after this month; plant pot-herbs, gather mint, plant out capsicum, love-apples, and basil : water freely every where; weed carefully, set out cardoons for blanching; sow spinach and radishes; and keep your manure compact, so as not to be injured by the heat. In the Fruit-garden. Keep your wallfruit clean from insects, and guard against birds; thin the sets where too numerous. Where apple, pear, plum, &c. trees have made shoots, regulate them duly, taking off all that would be superfluous close to the stems; new planted trees should be examined, and eventually watered. Look over your vines again ; towards the end of the month you may bud, or inoculate some fruit trees. Clear your strawberry beds from suckers, and set out where you want new beds, or to supply vacancies. Destroy snails, and scare birds. In the Flower-garden. Transplant hardy annuals, water tender annuals; some quick flowers may yet be sown, to blow in autumn ; take up the bulbs that are past flowering, transplant Guernsey and Belladonia lily roots, propagate fibrous rooted plants, transplant seedlings, look to your carnations and pinks, both old and seedlings, lay them, as also double flowers of various kinds, propagate by pipN n