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tain a fixed alkali. If the tubes be filled with infusion o cabbage, the signs of alkali and acid are very soon observed, from the liquid of z becoming red, and that of c green. If the connection be reversed, the liquids repass to the blue colour, and if the process be continued, that of z becomes green, and c red.
Galvanism, as a source of light and heat.
Batteries of great dimensions, such as contain from 5,000 to 10,000 square inches each, of zinc and copper surface, are capable of furnishing abundance of sensible heat and much light. If the connection between the two ends of the battery be made by a very small wire, such as the fine watch spring wire, the wire becomes red-hot for a considerable length, and if the power of the battery be great, *come. white-hot, and ultimately fused. Let the end of the wires of the battery be each provided with a pair of tweezers, one pair of which being insulated from the hand by covering the surface with dry cloth ; place between each pair of tweezers a small bit of charcoal, made in a close vessel, from box-wood, or lignum vitae. The moment the contact is formed between the bits of charcoal, a vivid light is produced, much more brilliant than that occasioned by burning in oxygen. If the contact be frequently severed by a sort of tremulous motion, the light may be kept up for some time. The foils and small wires of metals are deflagrated by placing them in the current. Let one of the conducting wires be brought in contact with an iron dish, filled with mercury. Let the foil or small wires be attached to the other conducting wire, and be brought in contact with the surface of the mercury, which, constantly presenting a clear surface, is very convenient in these experiments. A very brilliant effect may also be produced, by presenting the foils to the surface of a sheet of tinsel In flaming oils, alcohol, &c. by galvanism, some thin metallic substance, or a small piece of charcoal, should be cowered with the substance to be inflamed. The moment the contact is made, as in deflagrating the metal, the oil takes fire. The galvanic spark, with great facility, fires a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen
gases. A very brilliant discovery has lately been made by Mr. Davy, Professor at
the Royal Institution, and confirmed by others, which consists in the decom;osition of the two fixed alkalies. It is performed by placing a bit of the alkali in the solid state, and a little moistened, upon a plate of platina, connected with one end of the battery, and bringing into contact with it another piece of platina, from the other end of the battery. A portion of black matter is soon formed, in which is found imbedded small metallic globules; which substance is found to be the base of the alkali, and has been deprived of its oxygen by the galvanic agency. These globules are so inflammable, as to decompose water, with a brilliant flash and slight explosion. See Alkali. This discovery will be of great importance to chemistry, and will probably soon make a serious change in its arrangement and nomenclature. GAMBOCE, is a substance obtained from the stalagmites cambogioides, a tree that grows wild in the East Indies; from which it is had by wounding the shoots, It is brought here in large cakes, which are yellow, opaque, and brittle. With water it forms a yellow turbid liquid used in painting. In alcohol it is completely dissolved. If taken internally, it operates violently as a cathartic. GAME. It is a maxim of the common law, that goods of which no person can claim any property belong to the King by his prerogative ; hence those animals ferae naturae, which come under the denomination of game, are styled his Majesty's game ; and that which he has he may grant to another; in consequence of which, another may prescribe to have the same within such a precinct or lordship. And hence originated the right of lords of manors, or others, to the game within their respective liberties. For the reservation of these species of auimals, or the recreation and amusement of persons of fortune, to whom the King has granted the same, and to prevent persons of inferior rank from misemploying their time, the following acts of parliament have been made. The common people are not injured by these restrictions, no right being taken from them which they ever enjoyed; but privileges are granted to those who have certain qualifications therein mentioned, which before rested solely in the King To entitle any one to kill game, he must now take out a cer. tificate, upon which a stamp duty is payable. These certificates are to be dated the day of the month when issued, and shall be in force till the first of Jul following, and no longer; and if any .. of the peace, his deputy, or steward, clerk, &c. issue certificates otherwise than directed, to forfeit 201. 25 Geo. III. sess. 2. No person to destroy game, until he has delivered an account of his name and place of abode to the clerk of the peace, or his deputy, or to the sheriff, or steward, clerk of the county, riding, shire, stewartry, or place where such person shall reside, and annually take out a certificate thereof, which must have a stamp duty of 31. 3s. 25 Geo. III. sess. 2. Any person counterfeiting or forging any seal or stamp directed to be used by this act, with intent to defraud the revenue, or shall utter or sell such counterfeit, on conviction thereof, shall be adjudged a felon, and shall suffer death without benefit of clergy; and all provisions of former acts relative to stamp duties to be in force in executing this act. 25 Geo. III. sess. 2. Every qualified person, shooting at, killing, taking, or shooting, any pheasant, partridge, heath-fowl, or black-game, or any grouse or red game, or any other game, or killing, taking, or destroying any hare, with any greyhound, hound, pointer, spaniel, setting-dog, or other dog, without having obtained such certificate, shall forfeit the sum of 20l. Id. Clerks of the peace, or their deputies, or the sheriff, or stewardclerks, in their respective counties, ridings, shires, stewartries, or places, shall, on or before November 1, 1785, or sooner, if required by the commissioners of his Majesty's stamp duties, transmit to the head office of stamps in London, a correct list, in alphabetical order, of the certificates by them issued between the 25th day of March in the year 1785, and the first of October in the same year; and shall also in every subsequent year, on or before the first of August in each year, make out and transmit to the stamp office in London,correct alphabetical lists of the certificates so granted by them, distinguishing the duties paid on each respective certificate so isused; and on delivery thereof, the receiver-general of the stamp duties shall pay to the clerk of the peace, &c. for the same, one halfpenny a name; and in case of neglect or refusal, or not inserting a full, true and perfect account, he shall forfeit 201. Id. Lists may be inspected at the stamp office for 1s, each search ; (id.) which list shall once, or of. tener, in every year, be inserted in the newspapers in each respective county. If any qualified person, or one having a deputation, shall be found in pursuit of
game, with gun, dog, or net, or other engine for the destruction of game, or taking or killing thereof, and shall be required to show his certificate, by the lord or hady of the manor, or proprietor of the land whereon such person shall be using such gun, &c. or by any duly appointed gamekeeper, or by any qualified or certified person, or by any officer of the stamps, properly authorised by the commissioners, he shall produce his certificate; and if such person shall refuse, upon the production of the certificate of the person requiring the same, to show the certificate granted to him for the like \ purpose ; or in case of not having such certificate to produce, shall refuse to tell his christian and surname, and his place of residence, and the name of the county where his certificate was issued, or shall give in any false or fictitious name, he shall forfeit 50l. 1d. Certificates do not authorize any person to shoot at, kill, take, or destroy, any game, at any time that is prohibited by law, nor give any person a right to shoot at, &c. unless he be duly qualified by law. Id. No certificate obtained under any deputation shall be pleaded or given in evidence, where any person shall shoot at, &c. any game out of the manors or lands for which it was given. The royal family are exempted from takeng out certificates for themselves or their deputies. Id. The duty on these certificates are now, by an act which is at present passing the house, to be had through the collectors of the assessed taxes. The above is the law now in force. Besides having a certificate. each person to kill game inust be qualified by having a certain estate. The last general qualification (to use the words of Dr. Burn, though in fact it is the first of the acts relative to the game ever now put in force,) by estate or degree, to kill game, is 22, 23 Charles II. c. 25. This enacts, that every person not having lands or tenements of the clear yearly value of 100l. or on leases for 99 years, or upwards, of the clear yearly value of 1501, or except the eldest son and heir of an esquire or person of higher degree, or owners of forests, parks, &c. in respect of such fo. rest, park, &c. is not qualified for himself, or any other person, to keep guns, bows. greyhounds, &c. s. 3. This merely states the qualification; the penalties and modes of proceeding are entirely changed by subsequent acts: and first, by 3 Anne, c. 14, which directs that all former acts not thereby repealed and altered continue in force. With respect to offences against the game laws, we shall here enumerate
those chiefly which fall under the cognizance of justices of the peace out of sessions, premising, that for brevity sake the following abbreviations are used; viz. P. denotes the penalty; R. the mode of recovery; A. the application of it; Ap, the appeal; J. 1 or 2, and W. 1 or 2, that one or two justices may convict, or that one or two witnesses must prove the offence: and in treating of the several statutes on this head, we shall consider, 1. what relates to game exclusively; 2. what relates to other quadrupeds; and, 3 other birds, which, though ferae naturae, are sometimes reclaimed, and private property. Every higler, chapman, victualler, carrier, &c. who shall have in his possession any hare, pheasant, partridge, moorgame, &c. or offer to sell any such (except sent by a person qualified to kill game,) P. 5l. for each piece; R. distress, and in default, commitment three months; J. 1. Stat. 5. Ann, c. 14, s. 2. Persons not qualified to keep dogs, engines, &c. to destroy game, P. 5/. R. as above ; A. half to the informer, half to the poor. Justices, lords of manors, and game-keepers, may take away the game, dogs, guns, &c. Game-keeper selling, or otherwise disposing of such game, without consent of the lord of the manor, P. three months imprisonment; conviction as above. Ibid. s. 4. Killing game in the night, i.e. between seven in the night and six in the morning, from October 12 to February 12; and between nine at night and six in the morning, from Feb. 12 to Oct. 12; or at any time on a Sunday or Christmas Day, P. from 101. to 201. for the first offence, and from 201, to 30l. for the second; conviction as above, to be within one month. 13 Geo. III. c. 80, s. 1, 2, 3,9. In case of a third offence, P. commitment to the session, unless he become bound with two sureties to appear; prosecutor to be bound to prosecute (ibid. s. 1. :) application of penalties, half to the informer, half to the poor; R. distress, and in default, commitment three calendar months. Ap. sessions. Ibid. s. 4. More than two persons going out with guns, nets, &c. to destroy game, between eight at night and six in the morning, from Oct. 1 to Feb. 1; or between ten at night and four in the morning, between Feb. 1 and Oct. 10; or any person found with fire-arms or other weapons; may be apprehended by owners, keepers, &c. who shall deliver then to a peace-officer, to be taken before a justice; or if they cannot be apprehended, the justice, on
information on oath, may issue his warrant; P. deemed a rogue and vagabond, and to suffer accordingly. 39, 40 Geo. III. c. 50. Killing, or having in possession, any partridge, between Feb. 1 and Sept. 1, or any pheasant, between Feb. 1 and Oct. 1, P. 5l. for each bird; R. action in the courts of Westminster. 2 Geo. III. c. 19. Killing, or having in possession, any black-game, from Dec. 10 to Aug. 20, (in New Forest, from Dec. 10 to Sept. 1, by 43 Geo. III. c. 34;) or any red game, from Dec. 10 to Aug. 12; or bustard, from March 1 to Sept. 1: P.10l. to 201 first of. fence, and 20I. to 307. for every subse3. offence; R. distress and sale, if not orthwith paid, and the offender may be detained till the return of the distress, unless he gives security to appear again in five days; for want of distress, commitment from three to six calendar months, or till paid with costs; J. 1; W. 1; A. half to the informer, half to the poor; Ap. sessions, to be holden within four calendar months after the cause of complaint, giving fourteen days notice to the justice, and every other person concerned, and entering into recognizance, with one sufficient surety, to try the appeal, and abide the order of the court. 13 Geo. III. c. 55, s. 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10. Every person using gun, dog, &c. to destroy the game, must take out a certificate from the clerk of the peace, for which he shall pay a duty of Sl. 3s. P. 201. R. J. 1, W. 1. distress, or in default, commitment three calendar months, or till paid. A. half to the informer, half to the King. But if not prosecuted within six calendar months, the whole to the King. Ap. sessions. Justice may mitigate, not to less than half and costs. Gamekeeper to take out a certificate, for which he shall pay 17. 1s. ; under the same regulations and penalties, 25 Geo. III c. 5. 31 Geo. III. c. 21. Killing, or attempting to kill, any deer, in any forest, chase, or park, without consent of the owner, P. 207. , and for every deer killed or carried away, 30l. and if the offender be a keeper, double. R. sessions. Conviction, J. 1, who shall transmit the conviction to the sessions. 16. Geo. III. c. 30, s. 1, 3. Justice, on oath W. 1, may issue his warrant to search for any deer-skin, head, &c, or any net, and cause the person on whose premises they are found to be brought before him, and if he does not give a satisfactory account how he came by them, P. from 101 to 30l. Itid. s. 4. Persons through whose hands the deer, &c. have passed, not giving a good account, liable to the same penalties. Ibid. s. 5. Keepers and their assistants may approhend offenders they find in the act, and take them before a justice. Ibid c. 15. R. distress, and for want of distress, commitment for six months, or till paid, with costs, J 1. W. 1. A. half to the King, half to the informer. Ibid s. 11. Burning furze, fern, &c. on any forest or chase without consent of the owner, keeper, &c. P. 40s to 5l. R. distress, or in default, commitment from one to three
months. J. 1. W. 1. A. half to the informer, half to the poor. 28 George II. c. 19.
Unlawfully entering into any ground, (enclosed or not,) and hunting or killing rabbits. P. treble damages to the party aggrieved and costs, or commitment for three months, and till he find sureties for his good behaviour. J. 1. W. 1. 22, 23, Charles II. c. 25, s. 4 Killing or taking house-dove or pigeon, P. 20s or commitment from one to three calendar months, or till paid. R. J. 1. W. 1. A. to the prosecutor, 2 George III. c. 29. Driving, or taking by nets, tunnels, &c. any water-fowl in the moulting sea. son. P. 5s. for each fowl, and nets to be seized and destroyed. R. distress, and in default, commitment from fourteen days to one month. J. 1. W. 1. A. half to the informer, half to the poor. 9 Anne, c. 25. s. 4. Game, are deer, hares, pheasants, partridges, moor game, and, by the act now passing, snipes and woodcocks are made game. It is not to be inferred that these statutes actually impower qualified persons to hunt or shoot any where. They cannot enter another man's land in pursuit of game without his leave; but at the same time, if he has not warned the sportsman against coming upon his hand, he will not recover more than 40s. costs in an action of trespass. Sporting seasons. The time for sporting, in the day, is from one hour before sun rising, until one hour after sun setting. 10 George III. c. 19. For bustards, the sporting is from December 1, to March 1. For grouse, or red grouse, from August 11, to December 10. Hares may be killed all the year, under the restrictions in 10 George III. c. 19. Heathfowl, or black-game, from August 20, to December 20 Partridges, from September 1, to February 12. Pheasants, from October 1, to February 1. Wid
geons, wild ducks, wild geese, wildfowls, at any time, but in June, July, August, and September. GAMING, laws of These are found. ed on the doctrine of chances. See Ch ANCE. M. de Moivre, in a treatise “De Mensura Sortis,” has computed the variety of chances in several cases that occur in gaming, the laws of which may be understood by what follows: Suppose p the number of cases in which an event may happen, and 7 the number of cases wherein it may not happen, both sides have the degree of probability, which is to each other as a to q If two gamesters, A and B, engage on this footing, that, if the cases p happen, A shall win; but if q happen, B shall win, and the stake be a ; the chance of A will be Po. and that of B++ ; Consequently, if they sell the expectancies, they should have that for them respectively If A and B play with a single die, on this condition, that, if A throw two or more aces at eight throws, he shall win: otherwise B shall win; what is the ratio of their chances * Since there is but one case wherein an ace may turn up, and five wherein it may not, let a = 1, and b = 5. And again, since there are eight throws of "re die, let n = 8; and you will have on — br—n a b – 1, to bri + n a bn—1 : that is, the chance of A will be to that of B, as 663,991 to 10,156,525, or nearly as 2 to 3 A and B are engaged at single quoits, and, after playing some time, A wants 4 of being up, and B 6; but B is so much the better gamester, that his chance against A upon a single throw would be as 3 to 2: what is the ratio of their chances * Since A wants 4, and B 6, the game will be ended at nine throws; therefore raise a-Hb to the ninth power, and it will be a9-H9ao b + 36 a 7 b b-I-84 as 55+ 126 as b1-H126 as b%, to 84 as bo-H.36 a a 67 +6 a bi-H bo' call a 3, and b 2, and you will have the ratio of chances in numbers, viz. 1,759,077 to 194,048.
and, consequently, z = 373-1. The chances therefore, are */ }= 1’ and 1,
respectively. Again, suppose I have two wagers depending, in the first of which I have 3 to 2 the best of the lay, and in the second, 7 to 4, what is the probability I win both wagers ? 1. The probability of winning the first is #. that is, the number of chances I have to win divided by the number of all the chances: the probability of winning the second is or . therefore, multiplying these two fractions together, the product will be #}, which is the probability of winning both wagers. Now, this fraction being subtracted from 1, the remainder is # which is the probability I do not win both wagers: therefore the odds against me are 34 to 21. 2. If I would know what the probability is of winning the first, and losing the second, I argue thus: the probability of winning the first is 3, the probability of losing the second is *r: therefore, multiplying ; by for, the product #3 will be the probability of my winning the first, and losing the second; which being subtracted from 1, there will remain #, which is the probability I do not win the first, and at the same time lose the second. . 3. If I would know what the probability is of winning the second, and at the same time losing the first, I say thus: the probability of winning the second is or ; the probability of losing the first is ; ; therefore, multiplying these two fractions together, the product # is the probability I win the second, and also lose the first. 4. If I would know what the probability is of of both wagers, I say, the probability of losing the first is #, and the probability of losing the second # ; therefore, the probability of losing them both is # which being subtracted from 1, there remains #; there
fore, the odds of losing both wagers is 47 to 8. This way of reasoning is applicable to the happening or failing of any events that may fall under consideration. Thus, if I would know what the probability is of missing an ace four times together with a die, this I consider as the failing of four different events. Now the probability of missing the first is #, the second is also #, the third #, and the fourth ; ; therefore the probability of missing it four times together is # x : x # × 3 = ***, which being subtracted from 1, there will remain 1% for the probability of throwing it once or of. tener in four times; therefore the odds of throwing an ace in four times, is 671 to 625. But if the flinging of an ace was undertaken in three times, the probability of missing it three times would be # x # × # ###: which being subtracted from 1, there will remain *** for the probability of throwing it once or oftener in three times; therefore the odds against throwing it in three times are 125 to 91. Again, suppose we would know the probability of throwing an ace once in four times, and no more : since the probability of throwing it the first time is #, and of missing it the other three times is 3 × 4 × 4 it follows that the probability of throwing it the first time, and missing it the other three successive umes, st X # X # x # == *:: but because it is possible to hit it every throw as well as the first, it follows, that the probability of throwing it once in four throws, and missing the other three, 4 × 125 500 1296 T 1296 tracted from 1, there will remain H'.” for the probability of throwing it once, and no more, in four times: therefore, if one undertake to throw an ace once, and no more, in four times, he has 500 to 796 the worst of the lay, or 5 to 8 very neal".
is ; which being sub
Suppose two events are such, that one of them has twice as many chances to come up as the other, what is the probability that the event, which has the greater number of chances to come up, does not happen twice before the other happens once, which is the case of flinging 7 with two dice before 4 once Since the number of chances are as 2 to 1, the