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lass or common winch, where the motion is quick; for in pulling upwards from the lower part, a person can exercise more power than in thrusting forward in the upper quarter, where, of course, part of his force would be lost, were it not accumulated and conserved in the equable - motion of the fly. Hence, by this means, a man may work all day in drawing up a weight of 40lb. whereas 30lb. would create him more labour in a day without the fly. In order to calculate the force of the fly, joined to the screw for stamping the image upon coins, let us suppose the two arms of the fly to be each fifteen inches long, measuring from the centre of the weight to the axis of motion, the weights to be 50 pounds each, and the diameter of the axis pressing upon the dye to be one inch. If every stroke be made in half a second, and the weights describe an half circumference, which, in this case, will be four feet, the velocity will at the instant of the stroke be at the rate of eight fect in a second, so that the momentum of it will be 800; but the arms of the fly being as levers, each fifteen inches long, whilst the semi-axis is only half an inch, we must increase this force 30 times, which will give 24,000; an immense force, equal to 10010, falling 120 feet, or near two seconds in time; or to a body of 750lb. falling 167, feet, or one second in time. Some engines, for coining crown-pieces, used to have the arms of the fly five times as long, and the weights twice as heavy, so that the effect is ten times greater. See Col NING. Fly, in the sea language, that part of the mariner's compass on which the several winds or points are drawn. “Let fly the sheet,” is a word of command to let loose the sheet, in case of a gust of wind, lest the ship should overset, or spend her top-sails and masts; which is prevented by letting the sheet go-amain, that it may hold no wind. Fly boat, a large vessel with a double prow, carrying from four to six hundred tons, FLYERS, in architecture, such stairs as f. straight, and do not wind round; nor ave the steps made tapering, but the fore and back part of each stair, and the ends, respectively, parallel to one another; so that if one flight do not carry 3. to your intended height, there is a road half space, from whence you begin to fly again, with steps every where of the same length and breadth, as before. FLYING, the progressive motion of a bird, or other winged animal, in the li

quid air. The parts of birds chiefly concerned in flying are the wings, by which they are sustained or wafted along. The tail, Messeurs Willoughby, Ray, and many others, imagine to be principally employed in steering and turning the body in the air, as a rudder: but Borelii has put it beyond all doubt, that this is the least use of it, which is chiefly to assist the bird in its ascent and descent in the air; and to obviate the vacillations of the body and wings: for, as to turning to this or that side, it is performed by the wings, and inclinations of the body, and but very little by the help of the tail. The flying of a bird, in effect, is quite a different thing from the rowing of a vessel. Birds do not vibrate their wings towards the tail, as oars are struck towards the stern, but wast them downwards: nor does the tail of the bird cut the air at right angles, as the rudder does the water; but is disposed horizontally, and preserves the same situation what way so ever the bird turns. In effect, as a vessel is turned about on its centre of gravity to the right, by a brisk application of the oars to the left, so a bird, in beating the air with its right wing alone, towards the tail, will turn its fore part to the left. Thus pigeons, changing their course to the left, would labour it with their right wing, keeping the other almost at rest. Birds of a long neck alter their course by the inclinations of their head and neck, which altering the course of gravity, the bird will proceed in a new direction. The manner of flying is thus: the bird first bends his legs, and springs with a violent leap from the ground ; then opens and expands the joints of his wings, so as to make a right line perpendicular to the sides of his body; thus the wings, with all the feathers therein, constitute one continued lamina. Being now raised a little above the horizon, and vibrating the wings with great force and velocity perpendicularly against the subject air, that fluid resists those succussions, both from its natural inactivity and elasticity, by means of which the whole body of the bird is protruded. The resistance the air makes to the withdrawing of the wings, and consequently the progress of the bird, will be so much the greater, as the waft or stroke of the fan of the wing is longer: but as the force of the wing is continually diminished by this resistance, when the two forces come to be in equilibrio, the bird will remain suspended in the same place; for the bird only ascends

so long as the arch of air the wing describes makes a resistance equal to the excess of the specific gravity of the bird above the air. If the air, therefore, be so rare as to give way with the same velocity as it is struck withal, there will be no resistance, and consequently the bird can never mount. Birds never fly up

wards in a perpendicular line, but always

in a parabola. In a direct ascent, the natural and artificial tendency would oppose and destroy each other, so that the progress would be very slow. In a direct descent, they would aid one another, so that the fall would be too precipitate. FLYING, artificial, that attempted by men, by the assistance of mechanics. The art of flying has been attempted by several persons in all ages. The Leucadians, out of superstition, are reported to have had a custom of precipitating a man from a high cliff into the sea, first fixing feathers, variously expanded, round his body, in order to break his fall. Friar Bacon, who lived near five hundred years ago, not only affirms the art of flying possible, but assures us, that he himself knew how to make an engine, wherein a man, sitting, might be able to convey himself through the air, like a bird; and further adds, that there was then one who had tried it with success; but this method, which consisted of a couple of large, thin, hollow copper globes, exhausted of the air, and sustaining a person who sat thereon, Dr. Hook shows to be impracticable. The philosophers of K. Charles the second’s reign were mightily busied about this art. Bishop Wilkins was so confident of success in it, that he says, he does not question but, in future ages, it will be as usual to hear a man call for his wings, when he is going a journey, as it is now to call for his boots. The art of flying has, in some measure, been brought to bear in the construction and use of balloons. See Enostation. FLYING army, a small body, under a lieutenant or major general, sent to harass the country, intercept convoys, prevent the enemy’s incursions, cover its own garrisons, and keep the enemy in continual alarm FLYING bridge. See BRIDGE. FLYING fish, a name given by the English writers to several species of fish, which, by means of their long fins, have a method of keeping themselves out of water some time. See ExocoETU’s, &c. FOCUS, in geometry and conic sections, is applied to certain points in the parabola, ellipsis, and hyperbola, where

the rays reflected from all parts of these curves concur and meet. Foci of an ellipsis, are two points in the longest axis, on which as centres the figure is described. See Ellipsis. If from the foci two right lines are drawn, meeting one another in the periphery of the ellipsis, their sum will be always equal to the longest axis; and therefore, when an ellipsis and its two axes are given, and the foci are required, you need only take half the longest axis in your compasses, and setting one foot in the end of the shorter, the other foot will cut the longer in the focus required. Focus of an hyperbola, is that point in the axis, through which the latus rectum É. from whence, if any two right ines are drawn, meeting in either of the opposite hyperbolas, their difference will be equal to the principal axis. See HyPER BOL.A. . Focus of a parabola, a point in the axis within the figure, distant from the vertex one-fourth part of the latus rectum. See PAit A Bol. A. Focus, in optics, is the point wherein rays are collected, after they have undergone reflection or refraction. See OPTics. FODDER, any kind of meat for horses, or other cattle. In some places, hay and straw, mingled together, is peculiarly denominated fodder. Fooden, in mining, a measure containing twenty-two hundred and an half weight, though in London but twenty hundred weight. FOETUS, in anatomy, a term applied to the offspring of the human subject, or of animals, during its residence in the uterus. The term of ovum is applied to the foetus, with its membranes and placenta taken altogether. We shall consider, under this article, the anatomy of the membranes which cover the foetus during its abode in the uterus; of the placenta, which forms the medium of connexion between the systems of the mother and child; and of the pregnant uterus itself, since the peculiarities, distinguishing its structure to this time, arise from the residence of the foetus in its cavity. The following description applies to the uterus and its contents in the ninth month of gestation. The size of the organ differs much in different individuals; and this arises, principally from varieties in the quantity of the liquor amnii. In shape it is oviform; the fundus answering to the largest extremity of the egg, and the cervix and os uteri to the small end. It deviates from this regular figure from various accidental causes, as it adapts itself to the neighbouring parts, to the attitude of the body, and to the position of the contained child. Parts of the latter can often be distinguished in the living state. The small, or lower end of the uterius, is placed in the pelvis; this contains the greater part of the child's head, and fills up the cavity so completely as to press the bladder against the pubes, and the rectum against the sacrum. The body and fundus of the uterus, containing all the rest of the child and the placenta, is placed in the front of the abdomen, from the pelvis upwards to the epigastric region, so as to be under and before all the other bowels. It occupies the whole space from one hip-bone to the other.

The round ligaments, Fallopian tubes, and ovaria, necessarily undergo considerable change in their situation: they become closely connected to the uterus, as that body in its enlargement extends between the two layers of the broad ligaments. The ovaria are particularly distinguished after conception by containing a corpus luteum. This is a firm fleshy portion, distinguished by its yellowish gray colour from the rest of the ovary, and considered as a certain proof that conception has taken place. If there is one child, there is only one corpus luteum; if two children, two of these bodies, &c. The thickness of the pregnant uterus is from one to two-thirds of an inch. The arteries and veins of the uterus are wonderfully increased in size in the pregnant state, particularly opposite to the attachment of the placenta. This change seems to arise naturally from the important of. fice which the vessels have to perform at this period; viz. the development and nutrition of the foetus. Anatomists have disputed concerning the muscularity of the uterus ; but Dr. Hunter describes the appearance of the muscular fibres, which are however very faint. The mouth of the uterus is closed, until the time of labour, by a viscid glutinous substance.

The contents of the pregnant uterus are, the secundines, liquor amnii, and the foetus. The former line the uterus, and immediately cover the child; they form the chain of connexion and communication between the bodies of the mother and child, and carry on that wonderful influence upon which the life and health of the child depend. They are divided into navel-string, placenta, and membranes; and, as they are expelled from the uterus after the birth of the child, they are called the after-birth.

The navel-string is a cord about two feet long, made of three vessels twisted together, and fixed at one end to the child's navel, at the other to the placenta. Its vessels are an umbilical vein and two arteries: the latter carry blood from the child to the placenta, and the former brings it back again. Placenta. This, with the membranes, makes a complete bag, lining the uterus, and containing the child, It is thick, fleshy, and exceedingly vascular. Its figure is round and flat, about an inch thick, and a span in breadth. The outer surface, which adheres to the womb, is rough, tender, and bloody; the inner is smooth, harder, and marked by the ramifications of the vessels proceeding from the umbilical cord, which is attached to this part. Its substance consists of two parts intimately blended; viz. an umbilical, or infantine, and an uterine portion. The former is a continuation of the umbilical vessels of the foetus, the latter an ef. florescence of the internal surface of the uterus. The foetal portion, which is by far the largest part, is a regular ramification of the arteries and veins of the navelstring into smalier and smaller branches. No communication whatever has been discovered between these vessels and those of the uterus; so that the mode in which the foetus derives its nourishment and growth must be completely hidden from us. The uterine portion of the placenta covers its convex surface in the form of a thin membrane, and detaches innumerable fine processes into the substance of the part. It seems to be a portion of the decidua. It is connected into one mass with the umbilical portion, and the vessels of the uterus are continued into it, although they have no discoverable com. munication with the umbilical arteries and veins. The membranes are three in number; amnion, chorion, and decidua. The amnion is firm, thin, transparent, and possessing no visible vessels. It inmediately includes the liquor amnii and child. The chorion lies outside of the amnion, and adheres to it; it is transparent, very thin and tender, and adheres externally to the decidua. . The decidua is an efflorescence of the internal coat of the uterus, produced af. ter conception, in order to adapt the womb for the ovum which is to enter it. It is shed after every birth, or miscarriage, with the other membranes; and hence its name. It is thicker, but more delicate and tender, than the amnion or chorion. It contains several blood vessels, which are best seen in recently discharged secundines. It adheres closely to the uterus on one side, and to the chorion on the other. The laceration of the vessels, which this membrane receives from theiuterus, accounts for the hemorrhage which follows its separation. At the edge of the placenta it divides into two layers, which pass over the two surfaces of that organ, and form its uterine portion. The liquor amnii is the fluid immediately surrounding the body of the child, and so called from the membrane enclosing it. Its usual quantity is about two pints. It is a clear, transparent fluid. The child, while in the uterus, is naturally contracted into an oval form, adapted to the figure and circumstances of its habitation. The vertex of the head makes one end of the oval, and the nates the other. One side or edge of the oval is formed by the occiput, the back part of the neck, and the incurvated trunk; the other is made by the forehead and the mass of contracted and conglomerated limbs. The chin is close to the breast, the trunk bended forwards, the knees close to the fore parts of the hypochondria, the legs drawn to the back parts of the thighs, and the upper extremities contracted into the vacant space betwixt the forehead and knees. The more or less compact form of the child depends on the quantity of the liquor amnii; when that is small, the uterus moulds the child into various forms, and often produces deforInities of the limbs. The head is placed downwards with respect to the mother, and the nates upwards. The usual weight of the child at the time of birth is from five to eight pounds; of several thousands weighed at the British Lying-in Hospital, the largest weighed 111b. 202. the smallest was above 4lb. The head, upper part of the trunk, and upper extremities, are very large, when compared with the lower parts of the body. The surface of the skin is covered pretty generally with a white sebaceous matter.

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pose absolutely necessary to the life of the child, while it draws nourishment from the mother, and cannot enjoy respiration. As the foetus in utero cannot breathe, the circulation of its blood through the lungs would be useless : hence that fluid can go from the right to the left side of the heart by means of an opening called the foramen ovale, and placed between the two auricles, and of a communicating canal from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, called ductus arteriosus. The umbilical arteries are continuations of the internal iliacs, taking the blood from the child to the placenta; from which it is brought back by the umbilical vein, and circulated through the liver. The lungs are small and compact; and as they have not yet received air, they are specifically heavier than water. This is an important point, and is usually referred to in trials for child-murder, in order to determine whether the child was born alive or no. If the lungs sink in water, it is considered a still-born case; and if they float, the probable inference is, that the child has breathed, but it would be a very rash conclusion that it had, therefore, been murdered. Much caution and consideration of concomitant circumstances must be employed in making use of this proof. Putrefaction will disengage air so may make the lungs float. The thymus gland, in the chest, is very large in the foetus; it gradually shrinks after birth, until it entirely disappears. Its use is unknown. The pupil of the eye is shut until the seventh or eighth month, by a thin pellicle called membrana pupillaris. As a general observation, the eye and ear are very perfect at the time of birth, and almost as large as they ever will be. (N. B. This does not apply to the external ear.) The small intestines have no valvulae conniventes. The large are filled with a dark green mucous and semifluid substance, called meconium. The liver is of an immense size, and fills two-thirds of the belly. The renal capsules are very large, equal indeed to the kidnies themselves. Their use is unknown. The testicle is placed originally in the abdomen, near the kidney : but it passes into the scrotum towards the latter periods of gestation. Sometimes it does not descend on one or both sides till af. ter birth, and sometimes not even during life. A a

of the Uterus and its Contents in the earlier ..Months of Pregnancy.

The conception at first is lodged entirely in the fundus uteri; and no part of it extends into the cervix ; which, on the contrary, remains contracted and hard, and "lled with a tough and firm jelly. The neck, however, is gradually distended, so that at last there is no distinction between it and the fundus. The corpus luteum is larger and more vascular, and contains a cavity filled with fluid. There is a small membraneous bag placed on the outer surface of the amnion, and connected to the navel-string, called the vesicula umbilicalis. The chorion is at first covered all over with fine shaggy and floating processes; which are continuations of the umbilical vessels. By these it adheres to the decidua, and derives its nourishment and supply. These processes are the foetal portion of the placenta at that time. As the ovum increases they disappear from the general surface of the chorion, become confined to one part, and form the fleshy part of the placenta. The decidua is most manifest in the early state of conception, and is thickest at that time. It adheres to the uterus by numerous fine flocculent processes. It is formed by the uterus previously to the entrance of the ovum into its cavity; and is even formed in cases of extra uterine foetus, where the ovum never enters the uterus. The placenta does not exist in a very young ovum. The whole outer surface of the chorion is covered with shaggy vessels. In the course of a few weeks one half of the membrane becomes smooth, the remainder being covered as before. These vessels, at their floating extremities, are covered with decidua ; and these parts, which at first are separable, gradually become intimately connected, and form a firm mass adhering to the uterois, which is the placenta. The navel-string is not visible till towards the sixth or seventh week. The foetus is discernable about the fourth week after conception. In a particular instance, a very small foetus was discernable, where, from peculiar circumstances, the conception was clearly ascertained to be twenty-two days old. Towards the end of the second month it consists of two oval masses, the head and trunk; of which the former is bent forwards upon the chest; the eyes are

very conspicuous, and form large black prominences; the mouth and tongue are discernible ; the body forms a larger and longer oval than the head, with the lower part of the spine curved towards the belly: the upper extremities sprout out from each side of the chest; and the lower from the lower part of the trunk, being considerably smaller than the uper. FOG, or Mist, a meteor consisting of gross vapours, floating near the surface of the earth. See METEoRology. FOIL, among glass-grinders, a sheet of tin, with quicksilver or the like, laid on the backside of a looking-glass, to make it reflect. Foil, among jewellers, a thin leaf of metal placed under a precious stone, in order to make it look transparent, and give it an agreeable different colour, either deep or pale Thus, if you want a stone to be of a pale colour, put a foil of that colour under it; or if you would have it deep, lay a dark one under it. FOLIATE, in the higher geometry, a name given by M. de Moivre to a curve of the second order, expressed by the equation a 3-Hyo-air y; being a species of defective hyperbolas with one asymptote, and consisting of two infinite legs crossing one another, and forming a sort of leaf. FOLIATING of looking-glasses, the spreading the plates over, after they are polished with quicksilver, &c. in order to reflect the image. It is performed thus: a thin blotting paper is spread on the table, and sprinkled with fine chalk: and then a fine lamina or leaf of tin, called foil, is laid over the paper; upon this mercury is poured, which is to be distributed equally over the leaf with a hare's foot, or cotton: over this is laid a clean paper, and over that the glass-plate, which is presscd down with the right hand, and the paper drawn gently out with the left : this being done, the plate is covered with a thicker paper, and loaden with a greater weight, that the superfluous mercury may be driven out, and the tin adhere more closely to the glass. When it is dried, the weight is removed, and the looking-glass is complete Foliating of globe looking-glasses is done as follows: take five ounces of quicksilver, and one ounce of bismuth ; of lead and tin half an ounce each. First put the lead and tin into fusion, then put in the bismuth, and when you perceive that in fusion too, let it stand till it is almost cold, and pour the qmicksilver into it :

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