« PreviousContinue »
must be discharged by the representative out of the personal estate, if there be sufficient to pay the rest of the creditors and legatees: where such mortgage, however, was not incurred by the deceased, it is not payable out of the personal estate. Executory devise, is defined a future interest, which cannot vest at the death of a testator, but depends upon some contingency, which must happen before it can vest; it is called so to distinguish it from a remainder, from which it differs in being less strictly restrained by technical rules. EXEGESIS, a discourse by way of explanation or comment upon any subject. EXEMPLIFICATION of letters patent, a transcript or duplicate of then, made from the inrolment thereof, and sealed with the great seal. These exemplifications are by statute equally effectual, and may be pleaded, as well as the originals. One may exemplify a patent under the great seal in Chancery; also any record, or judgment, in any of the courts at Westminster, under the seal of each court; which exemplifications may be given in evidence to a jury. It is held that nothing but matter of record ought to be exemplified. EXERCISE, among physicians, such an agitation of the body as produces salu
tary effects in the animal economy. Ex
ercise may be said to be either active or passive. The active is walking, hunting, dancing, playing at bowls, and the like; as also speaking and other labour of the body and mind; the passive is riding in a coach, on oil. or in any other manner. Exercise may be continued to a beginning of weariness, and ought to be used before dinner, in a pure light, air; for which reason, journies and going into the country contribute greatly to preserve and re-establish health. Exehcise, in military affairs, is the ranging a body of soldiers in form of battle, and making them perform the several motions and military evolutions with different management of their arms, in order to make them expert therein. Exercise is the first part of the military art, and from it the greatest advantage may be expected, in the expertness with which men become capable of loading and firing, and their learning and attention to act in conformity with those around them. It is not from numbers, or from inconsiderate valour that victory can rationally be hoped for. In battle, the triWOL. V.
umph is usually derived from a knowledge of arms, and a strict attention to discipline. ExEncise of the infantry, includes the use of the firelock and practice of the manoeuvres for regiments of foot, according to regulations used by authority. The beauty of all exercise and marching consists in seeing a soldier carry his arms well, keep his firelock steady, and the whole body, without constraint. Every motion should be performed with life, and with the greatest regard to exactness; and in order to these, a regiment should never be under arms longer than two hours at a time. Exehcise of the cavalry, is of two sorts, viz. on horseback and on foot. The officers commanding squadrons must be careful to form with great celerity, and preserve just order and distances. The men must keep a steady seat upon their horses, and have their stirrups of a fit length. Exercise of the artillery, is the method of teaching the regiments of artillery the use and practice of all the various machines of war, viz. Exercise of the light field pieces teaches the men to load, ram, and sponge the guns well; to elevate them according to the distance, by the quadrant and screw ; to judge of distances and elevations without the quadrant; how to use the port-fire, match, and tubes for quick firing; how to fix the drag ropes, and use them in advancing, retreating, and wheeling, with the field-pieces; ico to fix and unfix the trail of the carriage on the limbers, and how to fix and unfix the boxes for grape-shot on the carriage of each piece. ExEncise of the garrison and *::::::: artillery, is to teach the men how to load, ram and sponge; how to handle the handspikes in elevating and depressing the metal to given distances, and for ricochet ; how to adjust the coins, and work the gun to its proper place; and how to point and fire with exactness, &c. ExERcise for the mortar, is of two dif. ferent sorts, viz. with powder and shells unloaded, and with powder and shells loaded; each of which is to teach the men their duty, and to make them handy in using the implements for loading, pointing, traversing, and firing, &c. ExeRcise of the howitzer, differs but little from the mortar, except that it is liable to various elevations; whereas that of the mortar is fixed to an angle N
of 45°; but the men should be taught the m; thod of ricochet firing, and how to practice with grape-shot; each method requiring a particular degree of elevation. Ex Encises are also understood of what young gentlemen or cadets learn in the military academies and riding schools; such as fencing, dancing, riding, the manual exercise, &c. The late establishment at High Wycomb is calculated to render young officers perfectly competent to all the dutres of military service, rovided they have been previously instructed in the first rudiments Offi. cers are there taught and exercised in the higher branches of tactics and manoeuvres. EXERGUM, among antiquarians, a little space around or without the figures of a medal, left for the inscription, cypher, device, date, &c. EXHALATION, a general term for all the effluvia or steams raised from the surface of the earth in form of vapour. Some distinguish exhalations from vapours, expressing by the former all steams emitted from solid bodies, and by the latter the steams raised from water and other fluids. EXHAUSTED receiver, a glass or other vessel, out of which the air hath been drawn by means of the air pump. See PNEU MAtics. EXHAUSTION, in mathematics, a method in frequent use among the ancient mathematicians, as Euclid, Archimedes, &c. that proves the equality of two magnitudes, by a deduction ad absurdum, in supposing that, if one be greater or less than the other, there would follow an absurdity. This is founded upon what Euclid saith in his tenth book, viz. that those quantities, whose difference is less thon any assignable one, are equal. For if they were unequal, be the difference never so small, yet it may be so multiplied, as to become greator than either of them : if not so, then it is really nothing. This he assumes in the proof of the first proposilion of book 10, which is, that if from the greater of two quantities, you take more than its half, and from the remainder more than its half, and so continually, there will, at length, remain a quantity less than either of those proposed. On this foundation they demonstrate, that if a regular polygon of infinite sides be inscribed in, or circumscribed about, a circle, the space, that is, the difference between the circle and the polygon, will,
by degrees, be quite exhausted, and the circle be equal to the polygon. EXHIBITION, a benefaction settled for the benefit of scholars in the universities, that are not on the foundation. EXIGENT, in law, a writ or part of the process of outlawry on civil actions EXISTENCE, that whereby any thing has an actual essence, or is said to be. Mr. Locke says, “that we arrive at the knowledge of our own existence by intuition; of the existence of God by demonstration; and of other things by sensation. As for our own existence,” continues that great philosopher, “we perceive it so |...}; that it neither needs, nor is capale of any proof. I think, I reason, I feel pleasure and pain; can any of these be more evident to me than my own existence If I doubt of all other things, that very doubt makes me perceive my own existence, and will not suffer me to doubt it. If I know I doubt, I have as certain a perception of the thing doubting, as of that thought which I call doubt: experience then convinces us that we have an intuitive knowledge of our own existtence.” From the knowledge of our own existence, Mr. Locke deduces his demonstration of the existence of a God. It has been a subject of great dispute, whether external bodies have any existence but in the mind, that is, whether they really exist, or exist in idea only: the former opinion is supported by Mr. Locke, and the latter by Dr. Berkely. “The knowledge of the existence of other things, or things without the mind, we have only by sensation: for there being no necessary connection of real existence with any idea a man hath in his memory, nor of any other existence but that of God, with the existence of any particular man; no particular man can know the existence of any other being, but only when, by operating upon him, it makes itself be perceived by him. The having the idea of any thing in our mind no more proves the existence of that thing, than the picture of a man evidences his being in the world, or the visions of a dream make a true history. It is, therefore, the actual receiving of ideas from without that gives us notice of the existence of other things, and makes us know that something does exist at that time without us, which causes that idea in us, though perhaps we neither know nor consider how it does it. This notice, which we have by our senses, of the existence of things without us, though it be not altogether so certain as intuition and demonstration, yet deserves the name of knowledge, if we persuade ourselves that our faculties act and inform us right concerning the existence of those objects that affect them : but besides the assurance we have from our senses themselves, that they do not err in the information they give us of the existence of things without us, we have other concurrent reasons; as, first, it is plain these perceptions are produced in us by external causes affecting our senses, because those that want the organs of any sense never can have the ideas belonging to that sense produced in their . Secondly, because we find sometimes that we cannot avoid the having those ideas produced in our minds. When my eyes are shut, I can, at pleasure, recal to my mind the ideas of light, or the sun, which former sensations had lodged in my memory; but if I turn my eyes towards the Sun, I cannot avoid the ideas which the light of the sun then produces in me; which shews a manifest difference between those ideas laid up in the memory, and such as force themselves upon us, and we cannot avoid having ; besides, there is nobody who doth not perceive the dif. ference in himself between actually looking on the sun, and contemplating the idea he has of it in his memory; and therefore he hath certain knowledge that they are not both memory or fancy. Thirdly, add to this, that many ideas are produced in us with pain, which we after. wards remember without the least of. fence: thus, the pain of heat or cold, when the idea of it is revived in our minds, give us no disturbance, which, when felt, was very troublesome; and we remember the pain of hunger, thirst, head-ach, &c. oil. any pain at all, which would either never disturb us, or else constantly do it, as often as we thought of it, were there no more but ideas floating in our minds, and appearances entertaining our fancies, without the real existence of things affecting us from abroad. Fourthly, our senses, in many cases, bear witness to the truth of each other's report concerning the existence of sensible things without us: he that doubts when he sees a fire, whether it be real, may, if he pleases, feel it too, and by the exquisite pain may be convinced that it is not a bare idea, or phantom.” Dr. Berkeley, on the other hand, contends, that external bodies have no existence but in the mind perceiving them, or that they exist no longer than they are perceived: his principal arguments, which
several others, as well as himself, esteem a demonstration of this system, are as follow : “That neither our thoughts, passions, or ideas formed by the imagination, exist, without the mind, is allowed ; and that the various sensations impressed on the mind, whatever objects they compose, cannot exist otherwise than in a mind perceiving them, is equally evident. This appears from the meaning of the term exist, when applied to sensible things: thus, the table I write on exists, i. e. I see and feel it, and were I out of my study I should say it existed, i. e. that were I in my study I should see and feel it as before. There was an odour, i. e. I smelt it, &c.; but the existence of unthinking beings, without any relation to their being perceived, is unintelligible: their esse is percipi.” Then, to shew that the notion of bodies is grounded on the doctrine of abstract ideas, “What,” he asks, “are light and colours, heat and cold, extension and figure, in a word, the things we see and feel, but so many sensations, notions, ideas, or impressions on the sense; and is it possible to separate, even in thought, any of these from perception ? The several bodies, then, that compose the frame of the world, have not any subsistence without a mind: their esse is to be perceived or known; and if they are not perceived by me, nor by any other thinking . they have no shadow of existence at all: the things we perceive are colour, figure, motion, &c. that is, the ideas of those things; but has an idea any existence out of the mind? To have an idea is the same thing as to perceive ; that, therefore, wherein colour, figure, &c. exist, must perceive them. It is evident, therefore, that there can be no unthinking substance, or substratum of those ideas. But you may argue, if the ideas themselves do not exist without the mind, there may be things like them, whereof they are copies or resemblances, which exist without the mind. It is answered, an idea can be like nothing but an idea, a colour or figure can be nothing else but another colour or figure. It may be farther asked, whether those supposed original or external o: whereof our ideas are the pictures, be themselves perceivable or not? If they be not, I appeal to any one, whether it be sense to say a colour is like somewhat which is invisible, hard or soft, like somewhat untangible, &c. Some distinguish between primary and secondary qualities; the former, viz. extension, solidity, figure, motion, rest, and number, have a real existence out of the mind; for the latter, under which come all other sensible qualities, as colours, sounds, tastes, &c. they allow the ideas we have of them are not resemblances of any thing without the mind, or unperceived, but depend on the size, texture, motion, &c. of the minute particles of matter. Now it is certain that those primary qualities are inseparably united with the other secondary ones, and cannot even in thought be abstracted from them, and therefore must only exist in the mind. Again, great or small, swift or slow, are allowed to exist no where without the mind, being merely relative, and changing as the frame or position of the organ changes: the extension, therefore, that exists without the mind is neither great nor small, the motion neither swift nor slow, i. e. they are nothing. That number is a creature of the mind is plain, (even though the other qualities were allowed to o from this, that the same thing bears a different denomination of number, as the minel views it with different respects: thus, the same extension is 1, 3, or 36, as the mind considers it, with reference to a yard, a foot, or an inch. “In effect, after the same manner as the modern philosophers prove colours, taste, &c. to have no existence in matter, or without the mind, the same thing may be proved of all sensible qualities whatever: thus they say, heat and cold are only the affections of the mind, not at all patterns of real beings existing in corporeal substances, for that the same body which seems cold to ene hand seems warm to another. Now, why may we not as well argue, that figure and extension are not patterns or resemblances of ualities existing in matter, because, to the same ; at different stations, or to eyes of different structure, at the same station, they appear various Again, sweetness, it is proved, does not exist in the thing sapid, because the thing remaining unaltered, the sweetness is changed to bitterness, as in a fever, or by any otherwise vitiated palate. Is it not as reasonable to say, that motion does not exist out of the mind, since, if the succession of ideas in the mind become sinister, the motion, it is acknowledged, will appear slower, without any external alteration ? Again, were it possible for solid figured bodies to exist out of the mind, et it were impossible for us ever to ło it: our senses, indeed, give us sensations of ideas, but do not tell us that any thing exists without the mind, or unperceived, like those which are per
ceived ; this the materialists allow. No other way therefore remains, but that we know them by reasons inferring their existence from what is immediately perceived by sense; but how should reason do this, when it is confessed there is not any necessary connection between our sensations and these bodies It is evident, from the phaenomena of dreams, phrensies, &c. that we may be affected with the ideas we now have, though there were no bodies existing without them; nor does the supposition of external bodies at all forward us in conceiving how our ideas should come to be produced.” EXOACANTHA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Umbellatae. Essential character: involute spiny; involucle halved, with unequal rays; flowers all hermaphrodite, with equal, inflex, heartshaped petals; seeds ovate, striate. There is but one species, viz. E. heterophylla, found by Billardiere near Nazareth. EXOCOETUS, the flying fish, in natural history, a genus of fishes of the order Abdominales. Generic character: head scaly; mouth without teeth; jaws connected on each side ; gill membrane ten-rayed; pectoral fins very long and large, and giving, to a certain degree, the power of flight. There are five species. We shall particularly notice the E. exilien, or the Mediterranean flying fish. This is about fourteen inches in length, and is found principally in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Seas, frequently alone, and sometimes in small companies. By the extraordinary length of its pectoral fins it is enabled to quit the water and support a flight, about three feet above the surface, for the distance of eighty or a hundred yards, after which it is obliged to return to the water and moisten its fins, which, even in this short progress, become hard and dry. These fishes are persecuted by the dorado under the water, and by the gull, or albatross, above the surface of it, and thus of. ten escape destruction by the one, only to incur it from the other. This faculty of maintaining short flights in the air is possessed by several other fishes, particularly by the scorpaena and the trigla. The air-bladder of the flying fish is extremely large, and, of consequence, highly assisting to its aerial progress. The roe of this fish is reported to be highly caustic ; the smallest quantity applied to the tongue producing some degree of excoriation. For a representation of the oceanic flying fish, see Pisces, Plate IV. fig. 2. EXORDIUM, in rhetoric, is the preamble or beginning, serving to prepare the audience for the rest of the discourse. Exordiums are of two kinds, either just and formal, or vehement and abrupt. The last are most suitable on occasions of extraordinary joy, indignation, or the like. All exordiums should be composed with a view to captivate the good will, or attract the attention of the audience. The first may be done by paying them some compliment: thus St. Paul, “I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee, touching all the things whereof I am accused with the Jews, especially because I know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which are among the Jews.” The requisites in an exordium are, 1. Propriety, whereby it becomes of a piece with the subject, and matches it as a part does a whole : in this the Greeks were very defective, 2. Modesty, which very much recommends the orator to the favour of his audience. And, 3. Brevity, not amplified or swelled with a detail of Circumstances. EXOTERIC, and Esoteaic, terms denoting external and internal, and applied, to the double doctrine of the ancient philosophers: the one was public, or exoteric, the other secret or esoteric. The first was that which they taught openly to the world, the latter was confined to a small number of disciples. See Pelup Atetics, EXOTIC, an appellation denoting a thing to be the produce of foreign countries. Exotic plants of the hot climates are very numerous, and require the utmost attention of the gardener to make them thrive with us. EXPANSION, in natural philosophy, the enlargement or increase of bulk in bodies, chiefly by means of heat. This is one of the most general effects of caloric, being common to all bodies whatever, whether solid or fluid, or in an aeriform state. In some cases bodies seem to expand as they grow cold, as water in the act of freezing; this, however, is known to be no exception to the general rule, but is owing to the arrangement of the particles, or to crystallization, and is not a regular and gradual expansion, like that of metals, or other solid substances, by means of heat. . In various metals, likewise, an expansion takes place in passing from a fluid to a solid state,
which is accounted for in the same way, The expansion of solids is exhibited by the Pyao Metka (which see.) A rod of iron, for instance, becomes sensibly longer and larger in all its dimensions in passing from a low to a high state of temperature. The expansion of fluids is shewn by the thermometer, and is the principle upon which that useful instrument is constructed; by immersing a thermometer into hot water, the mercury, or other fluid, contained in it, immediately expands. See Then MoMEten. The degree of expansion produced in different liquids varies very considerably. In general, the denser the fluid, the less the expansion; water expands more than mercury, and alcohol, which is lighter than water, expands more than water. The expansion of aeriform fluids may be exhibited by bringing a bladder, partly filled with air, and the neck closely tied, near the fire ; the bladder will soon be distended, and will, if the heat be strong enough, burst. Metals expand in the following order; those that expand most are placed first : zinc, lead, tin, copper, bismuth, iron, platina. EXPECTATION of life, a term used by the writers on life annuities and reversions, and which, according to Dr. Price, signifies the mean continuance of any given single, joint, or surviving lives, according to any given table of observations: that is, the number of years, which, taking them one with another, they actually enjoy, and may be considered as sure of enjoying ; those who live or survive beyond that period o as much more time, in proportion to their number, as those who fall short of it enjoy less. life, duration of
ExPECTORANTS, an appellation given to those medicines which facilitate the discharging the contents of the lungs.
EXPECTORATION, the act of evacuating or bringing up phlegm, or other matters out of the trachea, lungs, &c. by coughing, hauking, spitting, &c.
EXPEDITION, in military affairs, is cheifly used to denote a voyage or march against an enemy, the success of which depends on rapid and unexpected movements. No rules have been, or probably can be, given for the application of expeditions generally; they depend on circumstances that cannot be foreseen ; they seem to depend on the following maxims: 1. Secrecy of preparation and concealment of design. 2. The means must