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Introduction of the Kindergarten.


lu addition to the duties imposed by law upon district boards in this State, they are also empowered to provide suitable rooms or apartments for kindergarten work, and to supply their districts with the necessary apparatus and appliances the instruction of children in what is known as the kindergarten method. In the employment of teachers it is competent for district

boards to require qualifications for instruction of children in kindergarten methods. They may

provide by contract with teachers for such instruction, specifying the hours and times therefor under such rules as the district board may prescribe. All children residing within the district between the ages

of four and seven are entitled to instruction in TITLED TO ITS the kindergarten department. This act is ap

plicable to every public school organized by special act or by charter (4792 to 4796).

Necessary Appendages. The director of the district is authorized by law to provide

necessary appendages for the school house and to keep the same in good condition and repair

during the time of school (4686). In this duty the director is independent of the vote of the district meeting, yet there has been much controversy as to where the





authority of the director ends, or what he may purchase without the consent of the district. To settle this question so far as a few of the more needful

pieces of apparatus are concerned, the legislature of 1895 made an amendment to the section

above referred to. It reads as follows: Necessary appendages, within the meaning of the law, shall consist of the following articles, to wit: A set of wall maps (tlie grand divisions, the United States, and Michigan) not exceeding twelve dollars in price; a globe not exceeding eight dollars; a dictionary not exceeding ten dollars; a reading chart not exceeding five dollars, and a case for library books not exceeding ten dollars; also looking-glass, comb, towel, water-pail, cup, ash-pail, poker, stove, shovel, broom, dustpan, duster, wash-basin and soap (4686). It must not be supposed that only the articles mentioned in the law should be considered as necessary apparatus such as the director has the right to purchase. Numerous decisions have been filed which show that directors have power to provide other useful appliances without obtaining authority from the district meeting.

* The word “appendage” as used in our school statutes, does not mean simply the school apparatus used inside the building, nor is it limited to such articles as brooms, pails cups, etc.; but it must be construed in a broader sense, to include fuel, fences, and necessary out-houses (62 Mich., 101). Desks are necessary appliances (48 Mich., 404; Attorney General, July 31, 1877).

United States Flag.

While a flag for a school house may be considered as a necessary appendage” within the meaning of the school law, we give under separate heading the whole of Act No.56 of the Laws of 1895, the passage of which was advocated by the members of the Grand Army of the Republic of the State:

* NOTE.-For decisions relative to the purchase of charts by the director, see 36 Mich., 404, and 94 Mich., 262.

An act to provide for the purchase and display of United States flags in connection with the public school buildings within this State:

Section 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact, That the board of education or the board of school trustees in the several cities, townships, villages, and school districts of this State shall purchase a United States flag, of a size not less than four feet two inches by eight feet, and made of good flag bunting “A,”' flag staff, and the necessary appliances therefor, and shall display said flag upon or near (or in a conspicuous place within) the public school building during school hours, and at such other times as to the said boards may seem proper; and that the necessary funds to defray the expenses to be incurred herein shall be assessed and collected in the same manner as moneys for public school purposes are assessed and collected by law. And the penalties for neglect of duty provided in section two, chapter fourteen (thirteen] of the general school laws shall apply to any school officer refusing to comply with the provisions of this act (4802).

School Census.

The school age in Michigan is from five to twenty years and

the age of compulsory education from eight to WHEN TAKEN. fourteen, except in cities under police regulation,

where the compulsory age is from seven to sixteen. It is the duty of the director, or such other person as the board may appoint, to take a census of the district during the ten days just previous to the first Monday of September in each year (4687). This is one of the important duties of school officers, and it is essential that the census be taken in all districts of the State at the same time (4659). From the census reports of September is made the distribution of primary school moneys in May and November of the next year. Children in almshouses, prisons, or asylums are not in

cluded in the census; nor are Indian children, unless their parents are liable to pay taxes in

the district. The correctness of the census must be verified by the oath

or affirmation of the person taking the same, and a copy sent to the superintendent of public instruction,



Penalties and Forfeitures.

The law is very explicit in stating the powers and duties of all individuals connected with our school affairs, and is equally explicit in regard to the treatment of any one who seems regardless of the welfare of our schools. Below is a list of the various penalties and forfeitures:*


If at a district meeting any person shall conduct himself in a disorderly manner and, after notice from the person presiding, shall persist therein, the chairman may order him to withdraw and, if he refuses, may order any constable or other person to take him into custody until the meeting adjourns; and any person who refuses to withdraw on being so ordered, and also any person who wilfully disturbs such meeting by

rude and indecent behavior, or by profane or indecent discourse or any other disturbance, shall,

on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine not less than two nor more than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding thirty days. Any justice of the peace, recorder, or police justice of the township, ward,


* NOTE. -For penalty on parents or guardians, see Chapter VII, on compulsory attendance.

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or city where such offense shall be committed shall have jurisdiction to try and determine the same (4664).

Any person who disturbs school by rude and indecent be.
havior, or by profane or indecent discourse or any other dis-
turbance, shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine
not less than two nor more than fifty dollars, or by imprison-
ment in the county jail not exceeding thirty days (4682).

Any taxable inhabitant of a newly formed district receiv-

ing the notice of the first meeting, who neglects
or refuses to serve and return such notice, and

every chairman of the first district meeting, who
wilfully neglects or refuses to perform the duties enjoined
on him, shall respectively forfeit the sum of five dollars
Any person duly elected to the office of moderator, director,

assessor, or trustee of a school district, who neg.
lects or refuses without sufficient cause to accept

and serve, or who, having entered upon the
duties of his office, neglects or refuses to perform any duty
required of him by virtue of his office, shall forfeit the sum
of ten dollars (4766).
Any person duly elected or appointed a school inspector,

who neglects or refuses without sufficient cause
to qualify and serve, or who, having entered

upon the duties of his office, neglects or refuses
to perform any duty required of him by virtue of his office,
shall forfeit the sum of ten dollars (4767).
If any board of school inspectors neglect or refuse to make

and deliver to the township clerk the annual
report, within the limited time, they shall be

liable to pay the full amount of money lost by their failure, with interest thereon, to be recovered by the

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