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Rising Inflection. RULE 5. The pause of suspension, denoting that the sense is unfinished, generally requires the rising inflection.


The beauty of a pláin, the greatness of a mountain, the ornaments of a building, the expression of a picture, and the composition of a discourse, are to some persons matters of little or no interest.

The mild warmth of spring, the merry song of birds, and the sweet perfume of Aówers, conspire to regale the sènses.

The rising and setting of the sun, the splendor of Orion in a night of autumn, and the immensity of the ocean, awaken ideas of power, awful and magnificent.

Her vigor, her constancy, her magnanimity, her penetration, her vigilance, and her addréss, are allowed to merit the highest pràises.

NOTE. Sentences implying condition, the case absolute, the infinitive mode used as a nominative, the direct address not attended with strong emphasis, and the close of a parenthesis, are some of the specific cases to which the rule applies.


First, Condition. If, therefore, the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unléarned or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mád?

Second, Case Absolute. His father dying, and no heir being left except himself, he succeeded to the estate.

Third, Infinitive Mode. To look upon the soul as going on from strength to strength; to consider that she is to shine forever with new accessions of glóry, and brighten to all eternity; carries in it something wonderfully agreeable to that ambition which is natural to the mind of man.

QUESTIONS. What is Rule Fifth? What are some of the specific cases named in the Doto to which the rule applies ?

Fourth, Direct Address. Mén, brethrén, and fathérs, hearken.

It is no surprising thing, sír, that men should sometimes differ in their opinions.

Fifth, Parenthesis. If we exercise upright principles, (and we cannot have them unless we éxercise them,) they must be perpetually on the increase.

EXCEPTION. The pause of suspension, when attended with strong emphasis, sometimes requires the falling intlection, in order to express the true meaning of the sentence.


The young man who indulges in dissipation, if he does not become poòr, is in danger of losing his character.

The rising inflection on poor, perverts the sense of the passage, and makes it mean, if he become poor, notwithstanding his dissipation, he will not lose his good character.

RULE 6. The expression of tender emotions generally inclines the voice to a gentle, upward slide.



father well, the old mán of whom ye spáke?
Is yet alive?
Jesus saith unto her, Máry.
My Mother! when I learned that thou wast déad,
Say, wast thou conscious of the tears I shed ?
Hovered thy spirit o’er thy sorrowing són,
Wretch even thén, life's journey just begún ?
I heard the bell tolled on thy burial day,
I saw the hearse that bore thee slow away,
And turning from my nursery window, drew

A long, long sigh, and wept a last adièu. Rule 7. The last pause but one in a sentence, for the sake of variety and harmony, generally has the rising inflection.

EXAMPLES. The minor longs to be of age, then to be a mari of business, then to make up an estàte, then to arrive at hónors, then to retire.

Questions. What is the exception to the rule for the pause of suspension? What 13 Rule Sixth? Give an example to illustrato it. What is Rule Seventh? Give an example.

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbor as thyself.

A discreet and virtuous friend relieves the mind; improves the understànding ; engenders new thoughts; awakens good resolútions ; and furnishes employment for the most vacant hours in life.

EXCEPTION. Strong emphasis sometimes requires the falling inflection on the penultimate pause.


They rushed through like a hurricane ; like an army of locusts have they devoured the earth ; the war has fallen like a waterspout, and deluged the land with blood.

Falling Inflection. RULE 8. Indirect questions, or those which cannot be answered by yes or no, generally require the falling inflection, and the answers the same.

What didst thou answer? Nòthing.
Where is your màster? Yònder in the tower.
Why speakest thou not? For wonder.
Whence còmest thou? From the mountains.
What dost thou see? The black-eyed Ròman.
At whose breast was your dagger aimed ?

How shall I learn to meet those tèrrors? Who can fathom the depths of misery into which intemperance plunges its victims ?

Why should a man be in love with his fètters, though of gold? If thou canst do man good, why dost thou nòt ?

EXCEPTION. When the indirect question is not, at first, understood, and a repetition is required, it takes the rising inflection.


Where are you going? To Pòrtland.
Where did

you say?

? To Pòrtland. Where is the burial-place of Washington? At Mt. Vèrnon.

Where did you say? At Mt. Vèrnon. Note. If the answers of questions, whether director QUESTIONS. What is the exception to Rule Seventh? Give an example. What is Rule Eighth? Give an example. What is the exception to this rule? Give an es. ample.

indirect, are given in a careless and indifferent manner, they take the rising inflection.


Are you desirous to retúrn? Not véry.
Would you like to visit Álbany? I should.
How are you pleased with the country ? Tolerably well.

read Shákspeare? I have looked it over. Rule 9. Language of authority, surprise, denunciation, exclamation and terror, generally requires the falling inflection.


Charge, Chester! Charge! On, Stanly! on !
Awùke, ye sons of Spain ! -- awùke, - advance.

What a piece of work is màn! How noble in rèason! How in-
finite in faculties! In form and moving, how express and admirable !
In action, how like an àngel! In apprehension, how like a Gòd !

Denunciation. Woe unto you, Phàrisees! Woe unto you, scrìbes ! Paul said unto Elymas, O, full of all subtlety, and all mischief! Thou child of the Devil, thou enemy of all righteousness !

Exclamation and Terror. A month! Oh for a single week! I ask not for years ! though an age were too little for the much I have to do!

They come! they còme! the Greek ! the Greek !

Casar cried, help me, Cassius, or I sink? EXCEPTION. When exclamatory sentences become ques. tions, or are expressive of tender emotions, they usually require the rising slide.


They planted by your care! Nò, your oppressions planted them in Amèrica. They nourished by your indulgence! They grew by your neglèct. They protected by your arms! They have nobly taken up arms in your

defènce. O my son Ábsalom! -my són, my sòn Absalom !

Rule 10. Emphatic succession of particulars, and emphatic repetition, require the falling inflection.

QUESTIONS. What is the note ? What is Rule Ninth? Give an example. Aro chere any exceptions to Rule Niath? What is Bule Teuth.


Thrice was I beaten with ròds; once was I stoned ; thrice I suffered shipwreck; a night and a day have I been in the deep.

Go and tell John what things ye have seen and heard ; the blind sèe, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hèar, the dead are raised, to the poor the gospel is preached. — Charity suffereth long, and is kind ; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself; is not puffed up; doth not behave itself unseèmly ; seeketh not her òwn: is not easily provoked ; thinketh no evil.

The sentence is pàssed ; you are condemned to die.
You wròng me every way; you wròng me, Brutus !

The war is inevitable ; and, let it come! I repeat it, sir, LET IT COME!!

EXCEPTION. The penultimate pause has the rising inflection, according to Rule Seventh.

Note. When the principle of emphatic succession of particulars interferes with the pause of suspension, the fornier requiring the falling slide and the latter the rising, it is frequently difficult for the learner to determine which to employ. In such cases he must be guided by the emphasis, giving the falling inflection when it is intense, and the rising when it is slight.

RULE 11. Whenever the sense is complete, whether at the close, or any other part of the sentence, the falling inflection should be employed.


He that receiveth you, receiveth me; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him that sènt me.

EXCEPTION. When strong emphasis with the falling slide, comes near the end of the sentence, it turns the voice upward at the close.

EXAMPLE. If we have no regard for religion in youth, we ought to have some respect for it in áge.

Circumflex. The CIRCUMFLEX is the union* of the falling and rising * This union commonly begins with the falling slide, and ends with the rising. This order, however, is sometimes reversed.


QUESTIONS. Give an example. What is the exception to this rule ? Eleventh ? Give an example. What is the exception? What is Circumi

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