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Table 2. - Substitutes. NOTE. The following is a list of letters, or characters, frequently used as substi. tutes, to represent several of the elements as given in the preceding table. The learner should first name the substitute, then the element it represents and the example in which it is combined.

Vocal Substitutes. Sub-vocal & Aspirate Substitutes. ei for ā as in Veil ph for f as in Phrase ey à 66


“ Laugh a

d i

66 Soldier OU a


66 Ġem i 6 Marine


k а e

ch k

1 Chord u e

k у

q k

Quart у i


S i


66 Women

ph V


16 Suffice ew Ö 66


Z eau o "

16 Xanthus a


ng ew ū 66

16 Ocean ū 66 66 View с

16 Social e u

66 Sure i u


Chaise 0 u


66 Passion 0 !!


16 Notion 00 u


16 Bastion u


66 Suasion i

66 Onion


" Hymn
“ English


66 Cent 16 Of " Stephen

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66 His

" Busy
66 Sew
16 Beau
( Whạt
6 New

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sh 66
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The following table exhibits at a glance all the elementary combinations known in the language.

The first horizontal line at the top of the table gives the subvocal element b, united with every vocal element in the language ; as in bate, bar, ball, &c.

In every succeeding horizontal line we have one subvocal or aspirate sound combined with every vocal sound with which it is known to unite.

In each perpendicular line we find that vocal element which is placed at its head, combined with every subvocal and aspirate sound with which it is known to unite.

QUESTIONS. What is the subject of the second table? What are substitutes ? What are the substitutes for a 3-for e7--for iz &c.

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in the third, &c. ?

Questions. first element of a combine in the second perpendicular columnSecond element of a in the second horizontal line combine? -d in the third. &c. ? With what does the

What is the subject of Table Third? With what does the subvocal i

ll In the words brule, rule, truth, sure, Worcester sounds the u the same as o in mode. luther, intermediate between that of a in fat, and a in far.

* Worcester regards the sound of a in the words raft, vast, waft, lath, and

REMARK. This table offers in concert and individually, until all are able to ulter them perfectly and with facility. Lions upon which he should thoroughly drill his class, in explosive and other exercises ;

the teacher a very comprehensive class of combina

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Rule 2. The sound of the subvocals and aspirates, especially when used as the final letter, or letters of a word, should not be slurred nor suppressed.



hadst whiff's sticks nerv'st bask'st acts didst sists sixths tufis trusts crests ask'st sang'st thanks

shrink'st depths startl'st. twists lov'st writh'st eighths wafl'st curb'st rubb'dst whelm'dst fetch'dst turn’dst nestles puzzl'st

return'st return’dst reason'dst precincts thank'dst instincts troubl’dst drivel'dst mangl*dst wak'n'st bridldst hobbl'dst stifl'dst bubbl’dst walk'dst



NOTE 1. An imperfect utterance of the subvocals or as. pirates sometimes perverts the meaning.


Who ever imagined such an ocean to exist ?
Who ever imagined such a notion to exist ?
He can debate on either side of the question.
He can debate on neither side of the question.
That lasts till night.
That last still night.
The magistrates ought to prove it.
The magistrate sought to prove it.
They wandered over wastes and deserts.
They wandered over waste sand deserts.

QUESTIONS. What is Rule Second ? In which divisions of the alphabet are the Italicized letters in the examples classed? What is Note First? What letter is imper fectly uttered in the first example: In the second, &c. ?

NOTE 2. The immediate succession of similar sounds, and the collision* of open vocals, occasion difficult utterance.


For Christ's sake. The youth hates study.
The beasts straggled through the wastes and forests.
The steadfast stranger in the forests strayed.
The barren wastes still stole upon his view.
He twists the texts to suit the several sects.
The heights, depths and breadths of the subject.
He sawed six sleek,slim saplings in twain.
Thou stumbl'st on amidst the mists.
Rough winter rudely rends the robes of autumn.
Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone.
Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tirė.
When a twister, a twisting, will twist him a twist,
For twisting his twist he three twines doth intwist ;
But if one of the twines of the twist doth untwist,

The twine that untwisteth, untwisteth the twist. Note 3. Remoteness of accent occasions much difficulty in utterance.


Commu'nicatory. Unrea'sonableness. Peremptorily. Disin'. terestedness. Per'emptoriness. Practicableness. Inex'plicable

Authoritatively. Inex'orableness. RULE 2. The sounds of unaccented letters, or syllables, should not be perverted nor improperly suppressed, but fully and correctly uttered.



1. SUPPRESSION OF A LETTER. Mornin for morning ; thousan for thousand; harves for harvest ; prvent for prevent; prmote for promote ; gospl for gospel ; latn for latin.

* In the Greek and French languages a subvocal or aspirate is frequently inserted to prevent the meeting of two vocals.

QUESTIONS. What is Note Second? What sounds are similar in the first example ? In the second, &c. ? What is Note Third ? What is Rule Third ? What three faults are noted under this rule? Give an example of each.

2. PERVERTING A LETTER OR SYLLABLE. Popelous for popus lous; singelar for singular; regelar for regular; elemunt for element; gentlemun for gentleman; chickun for chicken ; reluctunt for reluctant ; cvidunce for evidence; theërem for theorem; holler for hollow; winder for window; rebeound for rebound; rute for ront.

3. SUPPRESSION OF A SYLLABLE. Histry for history; intrest for interest ; uttrance for utterance · diffrent for different ; refrence for reference; libry for library



ACCENT is a more forcible utterance of some one syllable of a word, so as to distinguish it from others; and it may be marked thus, (*).

Accent in the English language, is generally considered to depend very much upon custom.

This is probably true to some extent ; but it is believed that specific, and, in most instances, infallible rules may be given, by which the syllable taking the full accent may be determined ; but it is not thought it would be of practical utility to give them at length in this work; therefore but one general principle is laid down.

RULE. Each syllable on which accent falls must be marked by its proper distinctive stress.


na'tion appear invita'tion


constitu'tion ac'tion repeat everlasting Note 1. Besides the primary, a half or secondary accent is given upon words when they consist of several syllables, It may be marked thus, (").

QUESTIONS. What is accent? How is it marked ? Upon what does it very much depend? Can specific rules be given for it? What is the general rule for accent? On which syllable dnes it fall in the first examples ? In the second ? In the third ? What is note first? What is meant by primary or full accent? What by the secondary or half accent ?

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