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antecedents, the number of those who have made their mark in public life is by no means small.

The impression that Jews do not evince sufficient interest in public life can only be accounted for by the fact that they still retain that supremacy in the world of commerce and finance, which they acquired when no other field for their energies was open to them. They fortunately also afford many examples of that world-wide and farseeing philanthropy which does much to reconcile mankind to the great acquisition of wealth by successful financiers.

H. S. Q. HENRIQUES.

4 King's BENCH WALK, TEMPLE, E.C.

March, 1908.

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VI

Cromwell's attitude to the Jews

The legal position of the Jews under Cromwell the same as under

Charles I

Cromwell did not grant and bad no power to grant special

privileges to the Jews in respect of their religion
Position at the time of Cromwell's death. Previous intrigues of

the Jews in Holland with the Royalists
Menasseh's failure made the Jews of Holland incline to Charles II
Commission to Lt.-Gen. Middleton to treat with them
Their hopes destroyed by the battle of the Dunes
Interval between the death of Cromwell and the Restoration.

Increase in the number of the Jews here .
First mention of a Jewish synagogue in England
No change in the legal status of the Jews till the Restoration
The Restoration of the king and Resettlement of the Jews
Charles II an advocate of toleration in an intolerant age
The Convention Parliament and toleration.

,

Members ordered to take the Sacrament

The Corporation Act

The Quakers' Act.

The Act of Uniformity, 1662

First Declaration of Indulgence, 1662 .

The Conventicle Act, 1664

Bill for granting Liberty of Conscience rejected .

The Five Mile Act, 1665

Second Conventicle Act, 1670

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Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 .

136

The power to issue the Declaration questioned in the Commons.

The Declaration cancelled

The Test Act, 1673

139

The Parliamentary Test Act, 1678

140

138

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Petitions against the Jews at the time of the Restoration . 142

Position of the Jews after the Restoration .

144

The first synagogue

145

The secrecy surrounding the synagogue discarded at the end of

1662 or beginning of 1663 .

146

An organized community formed.

146

1664. Threatened attack on the Jews. Petition to the king.

His gracious answer .

147

Inquiry concerning the Jews ordered by the House of Commons 148

1673. Prosecution of the Jews for meeting for the exercise of

their religion

149

The Jews petition the king and obtain an Order in Council to

stay the proceedings against them

149

Entering a nolle prosequi on an indictment a new way of

exercising the Dispensing Power

150

Progress made in the Establishment of a Jewish community in

the reign of Charles II

151

Accession of James II. His religious policy

152

Jews arrested and charged with recusancy .

153

On the petition of Joseph Henriques and others a formal Order

in Council made staying the proceedings.

154

Dispute between James II and Parliament concerning the Dis-

pensing Power

154

The struggle transferred to the Law Courts. James issues his

Declaration of Indulgence.

156

The illegality of James's proceedings .

157

Did not affect the Jews

157

Views on toleration at the time of the Revolution

158

The Toleration Act

159

Extension of the benefits of the Toleration Acts.

161

Relief from the Test and Corporation Acts .

162

Legislative relief from the penal laws at length given to the Jews 162

Parliament and the Jews. Attempt to lay special taxation upon

them.

164

Mention of Jews in the Act imposing taxation on marriages . 166

The Act against Blasphemy

167

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