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A Life Worth Living.

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Francis Orpen Morris : A Memoir."— By his son, the Rev. M. C. F. Morris, B.C.L., M.A., Rector of Nunburnholme, Yorkshire. With portrait and illustrations. London: John T. Nimmo, 14, King

William Street, Strandi, 1896. HE Rev. M. C. F. Morris, B.C.L. M.A., acquaintance of the keeper of the Ashmolean

rector of Nunburnholme, performed a Museum, Mr. J. L. Duncan. In 1834, having filial duty when he undertook the task of taken his B.A. degree, he became curate of

writing a Memoir of his father, Francis Hanging Heaton, near Dewsbury, and subseOrpen Morris. Few memoirs have quently held the curacy of Taxal, Cheshire. great a justification, for, generations hence, On New Year's Day, 1835, he married Anne, when the historian dips into the past for the the second daughter of Mr. Charles Sanders, early history of the Humane Movement, he will of Bromsgrove. Says their son, the biographer: have take into serious and generous -“ Their married life, which extended over a reckoning, the life and the works of F. 0. period of more than forty years, was in Morris. Too much is at times made of the the highest and best sense of the word epoch when the fox-hunting, sport-loving happy. To them were born three parson flourished, and it is good now to put and six daughters." Subsequently one's finger on a different and, as we think, a became assistant curate of Armthorpe and better type of country clergyman. For that Christ Church, Doncaster, curate-in-charge of is what the subject of this memoir was. Ordsall, near East Retford, Nottinghamshire, Different persons have different conceptions of curate-in-charge of Crambe, between York and what a clergyman should be, but a very Malton, and, on November 22nd, 1844, was popular, a very lovable, a great respect-com- presented by Archbishop Harcourt (grandpelling figure must Francis Orpen Morris be father of Sir William Harcourt) to the living to all reasonable people. His son has done of Nafferton, in the East Riding. Here it was well in giving this record of a blameless, useful that he wrote his “ History of British Birds,” life to the world at large, and we humani. “ The History of the Nests and Eggs of British tarians in particular are his debtors for so Birds," and " The History of British Buttersympathetic a peep behind the scenes of a flies." Other works of a semi-scientific and long and honourable career.

theological character were also published Francis Orper. Morris was the eldest son of during this period (1850-4). “ He held firmly Admiral Henry Gage Morris, and was born at that the study of the arts and sciences Cove, near Cork, on March 25th, 1810, when should promote morality and religion, that the his father was captain of one of the vessels of general tone of the mind would be improved by the British Navy on the Irish station. His such studies and rendered more susceptible of mother was Rebecca Newen ham Millerd Orpen, higher impressions." After nine years of youngest daughter of the Rev. Francis Orpen, ceaseless work at Nafferton Mr. Morris ac. vicar of Kilgarvan, in the county of Kerry. cepted, at the hands of Archbishop Musgrave, American readers will be interested to know the Rectory of Nunburnholme, Yorks, and here that the Morris family had had a he spent the last thirty-nine years of his life, nection with America. Admiral Morris's fecting his knowledge of Nature, doing his father was Colonel Roger Morris, who married duty as a parish clergyman, fighting resolutely Mary Philipse in January, 1758, daughter of for every good cause to which he was attracted, Frederick Philipse, of Philipsburg, U.S.A., and earning the esteem of an ever-widening and George Washington, on meeting her in circle of persons of every grade of society New York, felt so attracted to her that it is and thought. Here he died early in 1893. said he actually proposed-and was refused. A leading critic recently observed that few The youthful English officer, Captain Roger men emerge from obscurity before their fortieth Morris, was preferred to the young officer in year. Mr. Morris's biographer states that the Virginian Militia, who afterwards became “ devoted though Mr. Morris was to the study first President of the United States. Colonel of natural history even from his earliest Roger and his wise Mary are both buried in days, it was not until he was past forty years St. Saviour's church, York.

of age that his name became at all widely It was in the lovely estuary which contains known as a writer on those subjects for which Cork Harbour that

con.

young Francis first he had such a strong inborn taste.” Though a imbibed his love of Nature, which deepened collector he was by no means of a greedy, each year and

left him. Early selfish order, nor was his keen sympathy with he became a naturalist and collector, and when suffering restricted; rather was it displayed he went to school at Bromsgrove, Worcester. towards every creature which could feel. shire, in 1824, he developed his tastes and was There are many passages we should like to a most enthusiastic student. At Charmouth, quote from this interesting work but space forin Dorset, where his father removed in 1826, bids. The numerous books and pamphlets and whilst under the charge of a private tutor, which Mr. Morris issued attest the value he the Rev. J. M. Butt, vicar of East Garston, placed on life as a period of strenuous labour, near Sambourne, Berkshire (1828-1830), he and his serious interest in the humanitarian pursued this study as a recreation, and it was struggles of his time. Taken as a whole the nourished and strengthened while at Worcester work is a loving record of a life well worth the College, Oxford, at which time he made the living.

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DEAR LITTLE COUSINS, to flutter about, and then you could see

To-day I want us to them sitting on the edge of the nest while talk a little of things the old birds fed them. How wide they “ far away,” of other did open their mouths ! These little lands, and the dear parents were called Mr. and Mrs. Black

birdies who live in them. cap, and they could sing very nicely, and In our own land we have plenty of nice wore black bonnets. When the little little busy brown sparrows, and robins and blackcaps saw anybody coming too near thrushes, and-oh! I don't know how their nest as they sat on the edge waiting many more! Just try to count up, and see for dinner, each young bird took fright how many you can find. Each of these and flew a

One little birdies is born in a sweet little round brother went east, another west, a third to cradle, made for him by his father and the north, and the fourth, a little sister, mother, and you know what care is taken perhaps, to the south-like the four arms of him.

of a cross. It was wise of them to do I knew of a nest a little while ago—it is this. You see, they thought it was safer there still, but empty, because the birdies for them to go like that, because nobody don't want it any more. It was built half could run after them four ways at once (just way up the trunk of a tree, just as high up try and you will find out), and so it made as my face, and it had four little Auffy, the danger of being caught less. How do bright-eyed baby birds inside.

Of course

little birds know of such a clever plan I did not want to

without being frighten the kind

taught ? It is what mother, who sat

is called instinct. spreading out her

They have found little wings over

out too how to them and peering

earn their own at me with her

livings. Wouldn't head on one side.

it be nice if boys And I did not

and girls all grew want to worry the

up knowing a good poor little father,

trade of themwho stuck up his

selves, without crest and shrieked

learning it? Birds out “ go away!”

always know their as loud he

proper trade, that could.

by which their The mother had

fathers and grandno blanket for her

fathers earned a babies; she turned herself into a blanket living, and as as they are big and kept them warm .by sitting on them. enough can earn their living by it too. So I did not go to stand by the tree till And the trade of little blackcaps is to clear they were all gone to bed, and then I used the rose bushes of blight and the fruit to creep on tip-toe to the trunk, over the trees of grubs. Very good they are at soft grass, and come so near that I could this trade. As for amusement, they have have touched the little sleeping mother with their music and take lessons in singing my cheek. They never guessed that a great from any grown-up bird they happen giant was watching them in their dreams! to hear. But this giant would not have hurt them It is very pretty to hear the young ones for anything.

singing to themselves in a whisper, before In a short time the little birds were able they have quite got their song by heart.

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They practise with their beaks shut, and their soft throats ruffling, and they speak with a lisp. We never, never could bear, could we, to hurt or kill such lovely happy creatures ?

And yet there are many girls, and women, too, who hurt, trouble, pain, and kill dear little birds,-as much as the idle, naughty boys who throw stones and rob nests. FI don't mean that women and girls do it with their own hands. Perhaps few of them are bad enough for that. But they pay other people to do it," far away, out of their sight—and that is JUST AS BAD.

The other day I met a bright, nice little girl I know, with a pretty little dead bird sewn on her hat. She had saved up her pennies to buy it, and now she felt pleased and proud to wear it. This was because she had never thought of “far away.” It was so, because as as I told her about that poor little bird, and how he was once alive, she took him out of her hat. She had not thought of how that tiny humming bird had once built a wee nest —such a mite of a nest! only an inch across, and an inch deep-quite a dolly's nest. ere his mate laid her little white eggs and sat on them, while her small husband came to feed her with honey and insects from his own bill. He took it in turns to sit, when she was tired.

By-and-by her little ones were born, and then she was pleased indeed! If any. body came too near the nursery these brave little parents, hardly bigger than a couple of large humble bees, would pluck up their courage and dart out at the enemy, flying round and round his head with a humming noise, trying to frighten him off! But if the stranger would not go, the little mother always went back to her children. She would not leave them to shiver and catch cold, however much afraid she might feel. Even if she had to die, she would rather die taking care of them. And then all day long the father humming bird Aitted about, sparkling in the sun like a living jewel, peeping first into one flower cup then into another, to find the nicest things to carry home. And he did a great deal of good to the flowers, just like a wee gardener, by ridding them of the insects.

Sometimes when he was thirsty he took a sip of honey himself.

Poor little humming bird! with his little wife sitting still at home! what would each do if the other was dead and gone? Perhaps some cruel man comes and kills the little mother or the kind, pretty father. Why? Because some little girl or some foolish woman who does not think of “ far away” wants his body for her hat!

Oh, is it not an unkind thing to do-to trim our clothes with what was once alive, and has to be killed for that! Why cannot we be content with all the pretty ribbons, and flowers, and other nice, clean, bright things, which may be had without doing any harm?

There are many other birds, which are cruelly shot by millions ! “far away think of that-millions of happy lives taken away every year because selfish people in England want to look smart, and don't care how they get their feathers. One beautiful great white bird, called an egret, is treated worse than all the rest. I hardly like to tell you about it, for it is enough to make us cry. The wicked men come to shoot her while she is taking care of her little ones in the nest. She hovers over them on her broad snowy wings and will not go away-how can she leave what she loves best in all the world ? Bang, bang! go the cruel guns-she drops wounded or dead, her little ones have no mother now—they cry for her but she cannot hear; they are left to starve. Then the men tear the soft drooping feathers from the old birds' breast and back, that some lady may wear them on her silly head.

If that lady or girl knew all about it, do you think that she could go about dressed in this way?-wearing the plume which that faithful mother once wore? I think not. At least if she could she must have a hard, bad heart. But perhaps it is just because she has never thought of far away”-only of what is near. Well, we will think often of “ far away." Never wear poor dead birds on hats and persuade others not to do such dreadful things.Your loving,

Edith CARRINGTON.

T

HE Anwalt der Thiere publishes news from

Helsingfors, Finland, of the formation there of a society for the promotion

among children of a merciful and kindly feeling towards animals.

The society was actually founded on Sep. tember 6th of last year, the name day of Mr.

Zacharias Topelius, a privy councillor, and a favourite writer of stories for children. The certificate of membership costs ten Finnish pennies, or one English penny, and the yearly subscription is of the same amount. There are already 1,000 members (adults and children). The name of the society is the Sylvia.

Selections from the post Bag.

which you omit to describe, it would be only hazarding an opinion to state what your dog died from. During an illness of twenty-four hours he must have shown some marked con. dition of suffering. It may have been acute inflammation of the bowels, associated with stoppage, or the effect of some poisonous agent, but failing a more detailed account of the symptoms exhibited, I cannot give a posi.. tive opinion. Woodrofre Hill, F.R.C.V.S.

on

The Wearing of Furs.
ILL you kindly allow me space for a few

words of comment upon an article

which appeared in your last number on the subject of wearing furs, and which was signed " A Repentant Sinner.”

While most entirely sympathizing with the writer in her love for the animal creation, and while fully appreciating the conscientious motives which influence her, I should like to point out that the course which she has adopted is not one which, in my judgment, will accomplish the aim that she has in view.

I believe that, as long as the world lasts, there will always be a section of mankind who, not being true lovers of animals, will primarily regard them as creatures who were made to provide human beings with food and clothing. In very cold countries the wearing of furs is an absolute necessity, and the eating of animal food advantageous.

Let us, therefore, draw a hard and fast line between cruelty, such as that practised in pursuit of science, which is unavoidable, and cruelty which may, and ought to be prevented. By all means wage untiring war against the unnecessary barbarities of some of our slaugh. ter-houses, the avoidable horrors of the seal trade, the use of steel and pole traps, the callous vanity which prompts women to wear small birds and egret plumes as ornaments. But if “ A Repentant Sinner" were to follow up her argument to a logical conclusion she would equally abstain from wearing leather boots and kid gloves. In conclusion, may I say that I believe that

I the cause which we all have so dearly at heart -the alleviation of the suffering of what Lord Coleridge has lately so touchingly described as * those voteless, those voiceless animals whom God has committed to our care,” will progress no less surely, if humanity goes hand in hand with common-sense, and enthusiasm is not merged in fanaticism.— I remain, sir, yours,&c.,

FLORENCE HENNIKER. 39, Sloane Gardens, S.W., Jan. 21st.

The Churches and Cruelty.
N your issue of this month Dr. Gordon

Stables challenges any one to deny his

assertion that in the whole of the last twenty years he has not heard a sermon incul. cating mercy to animals. There can be only one answer to the challenge, but it is a very simple one. The good doctor has evidently not been a regular or frequent churchgoer during these twenty years, otherwise he could not have failed to know that not only are isolated sermons this subject becoming more frequent, but that the Fourth Sunday after Trinity is each year more observed by the clergy as “Mercy Sunday." I have heard on good authority that last year hundreds of sermons in Anglican pulpits were on that day preached on the subject of our duties to our fellow-creatures of the animal creation. The day was also observed by some Nonconfor. mist ministers, not only in England, but even in distant Australia. A. L. WOODWARD, Hon. Sec. Church Anti-vivisectionist League. 158, Lancaster Road, W., Jan., 1897.

CLERGYMAN subscriber writes :

Best thanks for the photo of Land

seer's Newfoundland dog. When I was a boy I was friends with a very loving, noble one of that kind, but I cannot think that animals have immortal souls. If I were to judge by the conduct of a vast number of our clergy of the present day, I should say that they don't believe they have any themselves. Alas! the world is now far more cruel than it was in my young days, and I have just completed my eighty-third year."

Question and Answer. SHALL be obliged if you will insert in your next edition the following account

amongst selections from the Post Bag. “ I have lately lost a strong valuable collie dog, aged 55 years, which had been in my possession three years. He died suddenly, after about twenty-four hours illness. As soon as I perceived that he was ill, I found that he had no action of the bowels. Sulphur in his water was given and the following morning a dose of castor oil, but to no effect, and he died. What could have been the cause ? which to me is a mystery. Could any poison either accidentally or otherwise have been given him ? A reply from any of your readers, who is experienced in the diseases of dogs, will oblige.”—E. LAYNG. Milwich Vicarage, Stone, Statis., Jan. 4. ANSWER.-In the absence of any symptoms

AM very pleased to see from the January issue of the Animals' Friend, that your

April number is to contain a special appeal to ministers, etc., and that you intend to send them at least 2,000 copies. I have pleasure in enclosing P.O. value 36, instead of the 2/6 I promised. I have attended Kirks now for more than thirty years, and have been told hundreds of times about my duty to my fellow men, but never to my fellow animals..

It is positively disgusting to hear ministers talk so self-conceitedly and contemptuously about the brute beasts, just as if they had nothing in common, but had dropped from Heaven, pure and undefiled. Their whole attitude to the Animal creation is a disgrace to them, and says very little for either their Christianity or humanity.

R. STEEL.

Is Your Doctor Sound ?
T has occurred to me that there is one

way not mentioned in the leaflet,

“How you may help to stop Vivisection," issued by the Victoria Street Society, which, if it were generally adopted, would be of great use, and that is not to call in any medical man known to be a vivisectionist or a pro-vivisectionist, and if the doctor we have been employing is such, to dispense with his services, telling him the reason, and to summon another who is an anti-vivisectionist in his place. May I ask any who read this, if practicable, to act on this suggestion.-E. A. PERKINS. Turnworth Rectory, Blandford. The Harmless, Necessary Cat.

AM especially glad that you have taken

up the cause of the much-misunder

stood cat, and that your correspondents are giving s ich valuable hints as to its treatment. I should like to add one or two facts from my own experience, and commend them to the notice of your readers :

1. The cat loves a supply of fresh water at all times of the year.

2. When a family is moving house, the cats should be shut up in a suitable room till the bustle is over and strange workmen gone. If pussy is well treated she never prefers places to people, and will not dream of leaving her friends unless confused and terrified.

3. If the cat is ill or hurt have medical advice, and do not hurry to " put it out of its misery" simply to save yourself trouble. Life is sweet, and the cat is a most appreciative and long-suffering patient under gentle treatment.

Louisa Bigg,
Hon. Sec. R.S.P.C.A., Luton Aux.

me.

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directly after its death its throat could be cut, and then, by hanging its head downwards, the blood from its body would escape as freely as if the creature were alive and bleeding. It butchers on the score of cruelty in killing animals require to be looked after, surely it is time that this outrageous system of killing fowls should be stopped by making it a criminal offence-if it be not one already.

(Rev.) C. DROSIER. A Dog who went to Worship. E hear a great deal about the unkind

ness or indifference of Roman Catholics

to animals and their rights. Now I would not excuse in any particular one who is really so, but I should like to call your atten. tion to the following, as illustrating the fact that some Roman Catholics love their animals and treat them kindly.

A few weeks ago I was at a low Mass, at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Saugerties, N.Y. I was near the chancel, and, therefore, whatever passed therein was plainly visible to

Toward the close of the service, there was a noise in the sacristy, as if made by the pushing of a door, and a moment afterwards the yellow and white bull-terrier, belonging to the priest, came trotting into the chancel. He stopped, looked round, and then, seeing his master at the altar, that look of satisfaction more perfect on the face of a well-treated bullterrier, who has been hunting for his master and found him, than anywhere else in creation, spread over his face, and he hurried toward the object of his search. I held my breath as he passed the two little acolytes, fearing they would slap him, but they evidently knew better, and although they tried to catch him, he evaded them in the “eelish” manner peculiar to the bull terrier. He mounted the steps, and wagging his tail joyfully, stood behind his master, on the top step. Now it was time to move the missal, and one of the small servers did so, carefully stepping behind the dog, before he genuflected, and as the priest crossed to the north side of the altar to read the second gospel, the dog followed and stood as before, directly behind him, looking up lovingly, and wagging his tail. When the priest knelt at the words telling of our Lord's Incarnation, the dog moved back just enough to be out of the way, then followed his master to the foot of the altar where the English prayers are said, and finally left the chancel in the place of honour, at the end of the procession, the little boys and the celebrant going before.

Of course no Catholic would approve of dogs being purposely introduced into the chancel ; but when one did get in accidentally, it seemed, to me at least, most fitting that the priest, having gone there to seek his Master, (and when he had found adore Him), should not roughly cast out his own humble servant, who had, to the best of the ability given him, gone there for the same purpose.

ANNA SARGENT TURNER, Secretary, New York State Anti-Vivisec.

tion Society. Saugerties, N.Y. November ioth.

The Killing of Poultry.
HE exceedingly cruel system of killing

poultry, practised to such a great ex

tent on farm premises and in many other places in England, seems to me to have greatly escaped the notice of humanitarians endeavouring to correct the evil of all cruelties. Some fowl dealers, I am told, kill their poultry mercifully ; but the general practice in this country, I am grieved to say, is to tie the poor creature's legs together and then hang it, head downwards, on a nail or hook driven into the wall. The operator, mostly a careless houseservant, then takes a small eating knife, and thrusts it into the fowl's mouth cutting the arteries of the throat, and often twisting the knife unnecessarily about, inflicting dreadful suffering on the bird, instead of allowing it to bleed freely and uninterruptedly, and further. more repeatedly drawing his or her hand, with compressed fingers, strongly down its neck, under the idea of draining away the blood more freely. Now, if the people who practise these shameful cruelties were to pierce the creature's head with a common bradawl just where it joins on with the first cervical vertebra (after the manner the bull is killed in the Spanish bull-fights), it would die immediately, and

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