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* THE NOBLEST ROMAN OF THEM ALL," (From the Copyright Photograph of Mr. Gambier Bolton, F.Z.S., reproduced by his kind permission.) board were equally hospitable on the return voyage as they had been on the outward one, I noticed that most of the delicacies remained untasted, the bull fight having spoilt our

appetites for that day. I think the R.S.P.C.A. badly requires a branch in Spain, and I hope it will not always be a “Chateau en Espagne."

How the International Association' was founded. 1


HAVE been solicited to send you a where we were spending the winter. The brief notice of the foundation and next step was getting up, in the same work of “ The International Associa- place (with the assistance of Miss Gamble

tion for the Total Suppression of and Miss Robertson), a petition to ParliaVivisection,” before its union in 1883 with ment containing one thousand names. In “ The Victoria Street Society."

the summer of that year we had an interIn February, 1875, the attention of view in London with Mr. Jesse, but,

though delighted with his enthusiasm, found persuasion would induce him to act on a definite or practical plan, and all that we could, therefore, do, was to spread information on the subject by the distribution of literature, collect signatures to petitions, etc.

Early in 1876 a suggestion arose, on the part of Mrs. Adlam, that as no working society existed for the total abolition of vivisection (the Victoria Street Society at that time advocating restriction only), it would be well to found one, and so utilise and concentrate the large amount of interest which was afloat on the subject. Miss Wemyss, of Gloucester a well-known, hard-working humanitarian who was then our guest at Chew Magna, entered eagerly into the idea, which culminated in our all going to London, where, assisted by the Rev. George Collins, an influential meeting of

sympathizers was convened William Adlam, Esq., J.P., F.Å.A., AND Mrs. Adlam.

at Willis's Rooms, on June

21st, 1876. Thus the InterMrs. Adlam and myself was painfully nationalAssociation was born into the world.

. aroused by some letters of Mr. Jesse in Immediately afterwards offices were taken the Times, which detailed the horrors and in Cockspur Street, a secretary engaged, rapid progress of vivisection in this and the work commenced, which, for nearly country. I immediately opened a corres- seven years, was carried on vigorously. pondence with him, offered to assist him in During this time the Association was his crusade, and—as a first effort—reprinted the means of introducing several Bills into Dr. George Hoggan's thrilling letter to Parliament, viz. by Mr. Holt, Sir Eardley the Morning Post, and sent it, with a few Wilmot, and Lord Truro. A good deal of earnest written words, to every clergyman other Parliamentary work was also accomand Nonconformist minister in Torquay, plished, among which I may mention the overthrow of Mr. Agg Gardner (who was political bias—those who joined it were in favour of vivisection) at Cheltenham, not questioned as to social standing, creeds, and the return of the Baron de Ferrières, or views, all that was required of them who promised to vote for the practice being being that they should work with “a long made penal. The same result followed pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether," the canvass at Poole, when Mr. Schreiber and stand hand-in-hand on the ground of gained the day in opposition to the candi- a common humanity. date who upheld vivisection.


WILLIAM ADLAM. In conclusion, I may mention that the Committee of Cockspur Street represented

Manor House, Chew Magna, Somerset. a great variety of religious opinion and September 18th, 1896.

Alas! poor Albatross.

R. Henry Rayment writes as follows and they are stretched out and nailed on to a

touching the useless “sport” (!) of piece of plank. Room is scarce on board ship, capturing the albatross at sea. We and in most cases the wings find their way

wish this half plea, half reproach, could back to the sea, floating evidences of man's reach the ears of all those who "go down to folly and crime. I knew, however, of two pairs the sea in ships":

A ship becalmed in the tropics is often surrounded by these birds floating on the ocean like ducks upon a pond. But the desire to catch and to kill is strong in the hearts of men, and it is such an easy matter when an albatross is foating near a ship, to bait a hook with white rag and, attaching it to a long string with a piece of wood as a float, to throw it towards the unwary victim, so that in a greedy, unguarded moment it will take the bait and te hauled slowly towards the ship. Once on deck it seems to degene. rate into an awkward over-grown seagull. Its superb wings are useless, for it requires a long stretch of water, not of hard boards, in order to rise in flight; and as it dare not trust itself to walk with its webbed feet, it stands patiently waiting its fate. Surely man, of wings which were taken on shore, and a who boasts of being the most intelligent of living short time ago I met their owner and asked creatures, has some wise reason for placing the him what had become of them. He answered bird in this distressing position. Yes, he has that they were so oily that he did not succeed enjoyed the "sport” of catching the bird, and in preserving them, and very soon threw them nothing better now occurs to him than to away. But had he succeeded and kept these kill it. The wings are indeed useless now, feathers nailed to a board, would that have but some pretence is made of preserving them, decreased the folly or have lessened the crime ?


What Teachers

Teachers can do.


By HENRY S. SALT, Author of " The Life of Thoreau,” “ Animals' Rights," etc. |HIS appeal is addressed especially to treated. And, besides, how can children better learn

teachers, because until they as a class the pleasures of country life than by understanding are brought to feel the need of humane the importance of agriculture, the methods in use in education, there is not the slightest

their own country and the profit which may be hope of such education being granted. It is a

derived from intelligent farming and kind treatment

of animals ? case of Quis docebit doctores ? We must con

Do they not become attached to vert the guardians first, in order to gain the

country life? Do they not feel kindly towards all

dumb creatures ? desired access to the pupils.


Do they not receive ideas of onder

and domestic economy? Do they not love Mother vidual teachers, by personal example and

Earth, who pays us so freely and so generously for precept, can appreciably influence for the

our work ? And does not this love tend to check better the general tone and attitude of their the growing evil of emigration from the country to pupils towards the lower animals ; and by the city ? more and more introducing such subjects into My method of teaching kindness to animals has the course of instruction, can help to give a the advantage of in no way interfering with the definiteness and reality to the departmental regular routine of my school. Two days in the week notice recently issued. We have already the

all our lessons are conducted with reference to this Government permission that such teaching may

subject. For instance, in the reailing class, I choose be given ; what is needed is the insistence that

a book upon animals, and always find time for useful no education shall be considered sufficient

instruction and good advice.


My "copies

writing are facts in natural history, and impress upon without it. Still easier would it be for the

the pupils ideas of justice and kindness towards useful principals and assistant.masters of public and animals. private schools to do something towards a “ In written exercises, in spelling and composition, reform, by making the treatment of animals a

I teach the good care which should be iaken of subject of frequent reference in the pulpit and domestic animals, and the kindness which should be elsewhere Hund eds of addresses and shown them. I prove that by not overworking them, exhortations are annually given to schoolboys and by keeping them in clean and roomy stables, by those who have charge of their moral and feeding them well, and treating them kindly and spiritual welfare ; yet it is rare indeed to hear gently, a greater profit and larger crops may be a word spoken in protest against the worst of

obtained than by abusing them. I also speak, in all human vices-inhumanity.

this connection, of certain small animals which, Although, for reasons elsewhere stated, the

although in a wild state, are very useful to farmers. inculcation of gentleness by means of prizes

" The results of my instruction liave been, and are,

exceedingly satisfactory My ideas have deeply imis to be regarded with some suspicion, there is no doubt that the system of essay writing out

pressed my pupils, and have exercised the best

influence upon their lives and characters. Ever of school hours has certain distinct advantages. since I introduced the subject into my school I It sets boys and girls thinking on subjects have found the child en less disorderly, but, instead, which perhaps would otherwise be overlooked; more gentle and affectionate towards each other. and not unfrequently when the competitors are They feel more and more kindly towards animals, day-scholars and write the essays at home, the and have entirely given up the cruel practice of robbing whole family becomes interested in the work,

nests and killing small birds. They are touched by and the awakening of one mind to humane the suffering and misery of animals, and the pain ideas causes the awakening of many. Thus

which they feel when they see them cruelly used has mercy writing, like the quality of

been the means of exciting other persons to pity and

compassion." mercy itself, “ is twice blest ;

The central principle which should be It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.”

steadily kept in view in all humane education

is that which the Humanitarian League has That still more excellent results might be

made the basis of its Manifesto-that “it is obtained from a systematic instruction of

iniquitous to inflict suffering on any sentient children in the duty of humanity to animals, may be judged from the success which has

being, except when self-defence or absolute attended the efforts of the few pioneers in this

necessity can be justly pleaded.” It cannot be

difficult to teach children to distinguish cause, as for example M. de Sailly, a French schoolmaster in Algiers. I quote a portion of

between necessary suffering and unnecessary; his own record of the experiment.

yet in this distinction (so often forgotten by

our opponents), and in its practical application “ I have long been convinced that kindness to

to the details of life, lies the whole ethic of animals is productive of great results, and that it is

humanitarianism. The idea that humani. not only the most powerful cause of material pros

tarians are “sentimentalists" is the very perity, but also the beginning of moral perfection. I therefore began my work in 1851, and at the same

reverse of the truth. We fully recognise that time introduced agriculture into my school ; for I

it is often a stern necessity to inflict pain or saw the close connection between the doctrine of

death. Let us do so, when we are satisfied kindness tu animals and the important science of

that the necessity exists, with as few words as agriculture, since there can be no profitable farming possible, and not shrink from any action that unless animals are well kept, well fed, and well is rightly incumbent on us. But to hurt or

the 66



kill for mere caprice, or fashion, or amuse- better instruction and the better protection of ment; to cage animals when they need not be English children. We have recognised that it caged; to hunt them when there is no is a national duty to give a sound intellectual necessity for such hunting ; to torture them in education to every child in the kingdom, and a the supposed interests of a barren and futile national duty to safeguard every child from “science"; to treat them, when domesticated, cruelty and violence, even if its own parent be with an insensate roughness which defeats its the aggressor. We have now to realise that own ends—these are inhumanities which every there is one thing yet lacking—the education boy and girl should learn to regard with not of the intellect only, but of the heart. It loathing and detestation.

is useless to teach the young to become clever, The question of nomenclature is an important if we permit them to remain cruel ; it is useless one, to which a brief mention must be given. to pass laws to repress parental tyranny, if we It was remarked by Jeremy Bentham that encourage children in their turn to indulge the whereas human beings are styled persons, most tyrannous propensities towards beings “ other animals, on account of their interests yet more defenceless than themselves. It is a having been neglected by the insensibility of mockery to talk of religion, and art, and the ancient jurists, stand degraded to the education, and “humane letters," if we allow class of things." The German philosopher, the gentleness which can alone give vitality Schopenhauer, has

to these accomplishalso commented

ments to be poisoned the inappropriateness

at its source by the of the English neuter

festering plague of pronoun “it,” when

cruelty. There can be applied to highly intel

no literæ humaniores ligent beings. The

while brutality still common use of such

exists. As was nobly contemptuous terms

said of the curse of " brute - beasts,”

negro slavery, “While "live-stock," etc., is

these things are being undoubtedly an ob

done, Beauty stands stacle to the humaner

veiled, and Music is treatment of the lower

a screeching lie." races; and children

For these reasons should be taught that

our appeal is now made it is absurd for man,

to that educational himself an animal, to

class whose power, ignore his natural kin.

though sharply limited ship with the "other"

by facts and circumanimals, as Bentham

stances, is yet greater correctly calls them.

than that of any other " Without perfect

class to initiate a resympathy with the

form. It is for teachers animals around them,

to say whether no gentleman's educa.

earnest effort shall, or tion, Christian

shall not, be made to education, could be

inform the rising geneof any possible use."

ration that animals have So said Mr. Ruskin in

rights, and that the 1877; and one of the

MR. H. S. Salt.

man who violates those rules of his Society

rights, however cul. of St. George runs as follows:

tured or learned or influential he may be, is “I will not kill nor hurt any living creature deficient in the highest and noblest wisdom of needlessly, nor destroy any beautiful thing; but will which the human mind is capable. From such strive to save and comfort all gentle life, and guard and perfect all natural beauty upon the earth."

an attempt, though the immediate results be but

slight, who can say how rich a harvest may I would put it to those who may chance to not be reaped hereafter, or that the time may read this—how is it possible to make any not come when there shall indeed be that progress towards a “perfect sympathy” with “perfect sympathy” between mankind and the the animals, or to strive towards the high ideal lower races which is to us but a vision and a of the Society of St. George, unless on the dream. In Shelley's words, humanitarian lines which I have here advocated ? It is useless to think of “comforting

“No longer now the wingéd habitants, all gentle life " until we deliberately set

That in the woods their sweet lives sing away, ourselves to eradicate the evils by which social

Flee from the form of man ; but gather round, life is at present brutalised and degraded.

And prune their sunny feathers on the hands Let it be admitted that this educational

Which little children stretch in friendly sport process must perforce be a slow and laborious

Towards these dreadless partners of their play.

All things are void of terror : man has lost one; it is all the more desirable, therefore, that it should at once be taken in hand. ...

His terrible prerogative, and stands

An equal amidst equals. Happiness Much has been done in recent years for the And science dawn though late upon the earth."




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