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By The Hon. MRS. ARTHUR HENNIKER. EAR —, On opening my local paper know how sensitive they are to the this morning, I noticed with much

sympathy of human beings. satisfaction that you and your brother vivisected animal has probably no

magistrates had awarded the punish- near him who understands what the word ment of six weeks' hard labour, without the pity means. Dr. Macaulay has told us option of a fine, to a man who had brutally that he was revolted by the “monkeyill-treated a horse. Then I suddenly tiger spirit” of the students who attended remembered that I had promised some Majendie's classes, and the late Dr. time ago to write you a letter pointing out Hoggan has given us a horrible description what seemed to me the inconsistencies of cf their brutality in

cf their brutality in another famous the position you have taken up on the laboratory. Ah, my dear — faddists much-talked of and most painful subject and “ bestiarians, Professor Owen of vivisection. It would, of course, be gracefully calls us, may, perhaps, in our absolutely impossible to-day to mention a own way, love and revere knowledge fully tithe of the arguments used by anti-vivisec- as much as you do, but in the words of one tionists, so I will, as far as possible, confine of the greatest and noblest supporters of myself to asking you three questions. I

our cause, we say of her, wonder if you will be able to answer any

“Let her know her place, one of them satisfactorily?

She is the second, not the first." Firstly : It would surely be only fair, before you absolutely refuse to join any I think I have now shown you that you society or movement that has for its object find yourself in the unpleasant dilemma of the protection of living animals from experi. refusing to lift a finger to save dumb and mentation, that you should inform yourself helpless creatures from sufferings that you thoroughly as to what this scientific research would not consent to witness, hardly, really means. Why, my dear —-, do you probably, to read of ? not harden your heart (I know it myself to Secondly : You told me some time ago be a most genuinely kind one), and visit that you were anxious to obtain employment a physiological laboratory ? I would not for an intelligent boy, the son of an old suggest that you should so far torture servant. He had developed, you said, yourself as to witness experiments at the scientific tastes, and was fond of studying Veterinary School at Alfort. You would medical books. Why do not you, to begin be as appalled as I should be at the with, procure him a post of assistant in one spectacle of horses cut up alive by students. of the vivisectional laboratories in London? But, to be consistent, you must more or He would see something of the work of less applaud, and approve of the work of some of our most notorious researchers in such a brilliant scientist as, say, Professor physiological science, and when he had got Richét, of Paris, who would, no doubt, over his first feelings of disgust he might admit you to some of his “ demonstra- become interested in it. There tions.” He has frankly told us himself thousands of men in Europe and America that it is a love of science, for its own sake, undergoing, or who have undergone, a simply, that enables him and his fellow- like process of hardening. I somehow workers to spend hours in " fætid don't think you would wish your young laboratories,” bending over “ palpitating protege to be numbered among them? But entrails,” among groaning creatures, amid why not? if vivisection is morally right. scenes of blood and suffering. I cannot Lastly : Not long after the muzzling help thinking that after such a visit your order came into force, I recollect your views would undergo some modification. saying that one day in London you had You would realize, in a way that you as- come across a stray spaniel in the streets. suredly do not now, something of the agony He had evidently been run over, for he of fear, as well as the physical torture walked on three legs, with pain and endured by these victims, you would be difficulty. You were touched when he sickened at the thoughts of the long hours dragged himself wearily after you, looking of pain and thirst to be borne by those up at you with sad, appealing eyes. He kept alive after the experiments are over. was unmuzzled and had no collar. From You sat up all night with your own dog his dilapidated appearance it was easy to when he was ill, and like all people who see that he had no friends. You hailed a have much to do with animals, you well hansom and took him to that excellent


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little hospital in Kinnerton Street, called whose chests were cut open, and whose the New Animals' Institute. It was started, nerves were cut and stimulated by electriyou remember, by Mr. John Atkinson, a city, and some people, yourself included, strong anti-vivisectionist, who has been, might shudder at the bare idea of their

, by the way, as successful with his human, fate. I think you have landed yourself in as with his four-legged patients. There, a dilemma once more. There must be under the care of Mr. Atkinson's humane men who supply the laboratories with and very skilful coadjutor, Mr. Mathews, victims, and if experimental science is such the spaniel recovered, grew fat and hand- a good and noble thing, why should they some, and you found a good home for him. be blamed ? On the contrary, they too Dear surely this kindly action was ought to be numbered among the beneone of the greatest of your inconsistencies ! factors of humanity. But you did not Science, you say, must have its martyrs, personally feel disposed to add the stray and here was one ready to hand. He had spaniel to the holocaust of victims ! So no friends who wanted to claim him. Why the conclusion I have arrived at, my dear on earth did you not give him up for -, is that you and I, when we come to experimentation at one of our great examine this subject carefully and practimedical schools ? It is true that we have cally, do not really differ so very much a record of experiments carried out last after all. Let me know what

you think year in England on dogs, whose blood- about it some day. vessels and hearts were penetrated by

Ever sincerely yours, tubes, whose skulls were bored through,


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The Prize of Half-a-Guinea has been awarded to the Rev. T. Perkins, M.A.,

Turnham Rectory, Dorset, for the above Photo. Books FOR Prizes. ---Messrs. George Bell & Sons have published their “Animal Life Readers" in very pretty cloth bindings, stiff covers, and with gilt edges, in preparation for the Christmas Season. These handy and attractive little books about Animals are illustrated copiously by Harrison Weir and others, and are capital as prizes and presents for small folks. They vary in price from 6d. to 25.

THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS.-Rev. J. Stratton requests us to say that in his letter to Lord Salisbury, published in our July issue (page 180), he asked his Lordship to sympathise with “the vieurs," and not with

contained in his letter. We regret the misprint.

* the news


A plea for Eels .

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By Edith CARRINGTON, Author of "Animal Life Readers," etc.

Mercy to him who shows it is the rule.”—Cowper. THEN the mother eel deposits her of weather affect him, and the right place

eggs in the mud and leaves them, for spawning must be selected. In winter she unwittingly presents the river he will bury himself in a blanket of mud,

with some most beautiful and and await better times. graceful guests. Those who know eels Over perfectly dry ground an eеl cannot only in the form of a slimy and disgusting creep, his gills and skin require refreshtangle upon the slab of a fishmonger, can ment from wet grass or a damp road, but have no idea of the exquisite ease, a very he has been seen to wend his way at an poetry of motion, with which these ribbons astonishing pace, and apparently to his of living green and silver wave their way own satisfaction, across fields and even through the water. The elegant chain- broad paths, without a tourist's guide, yet work of bones forming an eel's spine is evidently knowing his destination, Multisufficiently like that of a snake to ensure tudes of little eels are often seen journeying harmonious curving movement on shore up stream, and their transit is called an as well as in the pool, though the sinuous "eel fare,” or eel journey, from the Saxon gliding is not quite the same.

Girt with faren, to go.

When bound on these fins, and with the breathing apparatus of a mysterious stampedes nothing will stop true fish, the eel's outward lungs or gills them. They will swarm up rocks, and are modified to suit his purpose as cling to stones, seeming as much at home amphibious animal.

on the steep sides as a fly on a ceiling. These gills lie just behind the eyes, They will wriggle up trees, and poke their consisting of a number of thin plates over- investigating noses into cistern pipes with lapping each other like the leaves of a dauntless though misplaced confidence. book. So long as they are kept moist the Millions upon millions of them perish in eel can support life by impregnating his this march of colonization, for an attempt blood vessels with oxygen, which he draws to colonize it is. Eels that have formed from the water. By a simple and admir- the vanguard perish by thousands for lack able device the eel's gills can retain of moisture when any obstacle, such as moisture for a longer time than those of a dry fence, has to be surmounted—they other fishes, hence his power to make never think of turning back, but literally himself at home on shore for a time. This stick to their post, and their dead bodies is managed by a narrow opening to the form a ladder for the rest behind. gills, which holds the water within them. We scarcely value the eel sufficiently as a

The poor trout taken from his crystal scavenger; he is one of the humble factors home and left to die on the bank, takes of life treated scornfully, because he never twenty minutes or

to gasp out brags. He is an omnivorous animal, and in his life, at the end of that time his gills the stagnant places he often inhabits, his cease to do their office. But the eel is of agency as a purifier is mighty. Basking a different habit. He is of a wandering the beds of water-weed, or on the turn of mind, of a more enterprising spirit, banks of his pond, the eel will snap at somewhat fond, too, of a change of diet; flies, catch mice and frogs, or even tackle he will face a journey on terra-firma rather rats. The corpse of an eel, with a large than starve. He has other reasons, too, rat half-way “ down the red lane,” was for an annual trip to the sea-side, changes found floating, as a proof of his propensi




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ties in this line. Below the surface he does he warn the giddy that the end of the keeps in check the swarming billions of world is coming, and that prudent eels must aquatic insects, or gets rid of garbage, in pack up and seek a better?

The Aitting, sea and fresh water alike, and almost moreover, is always performed by night, throughout the globe. The dead body of another proof of sagacity. The eel, a horse, taken from a ditch, was found to plainly, is not a creature to be tortured ; contain as many small eels as would make he is highly organized, sensible, and theretwo wheelbarrow loads. They were feast- fore sensitive. His tenacity of life, meant ing on the remains, gathering like eagles to be a blessing to him, is a curse, because to the carcase, who shall say how?

of cruel men and women. We lofty “humans

fond of When the eel is left to linger for days in ascribing to “instinctive impulse ” many misery, cut up or skinned alive, he underof the intelligent acts by which our lower goes the utmost which his cold, slow nature brethren earn an honest living; we say so,

enables him to endure. And all this when without exactly knowing what we mean. a simple breakage of his spine would put Corporate action, involving a high degree of him out of pain at once, no matter how self-effacement and self-sacrifice, as well as brisk the writhing afterwards. The extreme a power of talking, or communicating ideas muscular irritability of the eel permits in some way, must be necessary before a motion long after death, and his heart has community of any sort can live, feed, and been known to retain this for forty hours dwell in peace together. That eels do after being removed from the body. this is a proof of Nature's consideration for Edward Jesse, a great and good man in their race, since she has taught them to matters of mercy, says that the most sacrifice the individual in order to preserve humane way to kill eels is to place them in the species. But it would be rash to say tepid water; others state that the best that the eel obeys his rule blindly ; he is a mode is to grasp them by the neck on shrewd animal, and capable of striking out being first taken out of the stream and to new lines for himself so as to cope with slap their tails smartly against a stone or varying trials. Thus he shows, to a certain post. A third method is to sever the backextent, thinking power.

bone close to the head; and another to stun To what else can we attribute the fact by a violent blow on the head, while a that an army of eels will quit a pond before transverse cut near the tail will cause bleedit dries up, and seek another, so as to take ing to death.

One or other of these plans time by the forelock ? What gifts has the should be insisted on, and fish mongers sage-probably the oldest inhabitant, who taught that the public detest barbarity, counsels this manquvre --in what way even towards the meanest thing that feels.


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A Spanish Bull fight.

T was a lovely day in October that a boats at the pier head. In groups we wended
gay party of English ladies and gentle- our way through the quaint old Spanish town

to the grand amphitheatre, where all the rank,
garrison of Gibraltar, embarked at the fashion, and beauty of the neighbourhood
New Mole, Gibraltar, in a gunboat, to go were gathered to see the cruel sport.
across and see a bull fight at Algeciras, in It was certainly a gay scene, and repaid one
Spain, by special invitation of the august thus far for going. The brilliant colour of the
Governor of that town, who bears amongst ladies' dresses and parasols, and the smart
his numerous other high-sounding titles, that uniforms of the Spanish officers scattered
of “Governor of Algeciras and of Gibraltar, about, gave the appearance of a bank of
now in temporary occupation of the British. flowers. Gaily dressed picadors, matadors,
I do not suppose that any of us really looked and toreadors swaggered about in the arena,
forward to the actual bull fight itself, but were and gensdarmes fussed around, looking intensely
probably actuated by the various motives fierce all about nothing, and everyone was on
that move Society to bore itself ; some went the tiptoe of excitement for the show to begin.
because they wished to be able to say they had At last a big bell rang, and the great doors at
seen one, and some because everyone

who was one end of the arena were thrown open, and a anyone was going.

stately cavalcade of gaily dressed cavaliers and The trip across the land-locked bay was “artists of the ring" rode and marched round accomplished successfully. No one was sea. the arena to what, I honestly believe, was sick (the sea was like a duck pond), we did not intended for a tune, played by a regimental encounter any hostile fleets, and in due time band. After going once round the cavalcade we anchored off Algeciras and were landed in formed up in front of the Governor's box, and

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the band played the Spanish national anthem red shawl on his left arm and a rapier in his whilst the cavaliers saluted. The Governor, right hand, and he infuriates the already bareheaded, bowed his acknowledgments. maddened bull by waving the red shawl in Then the procession filed back through the big his face until the poor beast determines to gates, and only those who were to take part in “go for him.” Then when the bull charges, the first “ act” remained. Then other doors the matador takes a steady aim with his were opened (with extreme caution), and rapier, and, judging to an inch where to amidst breathless silence, in walked the bull, stand, keeps the point levelled at the bull's calm and dignified. He sniffed the air as if he neck, and the bull charging with all his force scented danger, and finding things did not look receives the point of the rapier on the as bad as he expected he began to search vertebræ of the neck, and, if skilfully done, about the ground for possible tufts of grass. the spinal cord is severed, the poor baited This was too pastoral a way of spending the animal dropping stone dead. If successful, time for the spectators, so they hissed. Then the "house" applauds to the echo, but if a gentleman, I think they called him a toreador, the rapier misses its point the matador is whose duty it is to awaken the bull to a be- hissed. When number one bull has been coming sense of his responsibilities, began his disposed of, number two has to go through gruesome work. He and his fellow toreadors the cruel tortures, and so on. In the mean. had short sticks, with a barb at one end and a time, the horses which have been killed are lot of gay-coloured ribbons at the other (like a being flayed and cut up, and sold for meat consumptive guitar), and these they plunged to the rabble outside—I suppose to help to into the fleshy parts of the unfortunate bull, pay for the expenses of the show. I myself, giving him excruciating pain every time he I almost blush to own it, saw one wounded moved. This had the desired effect, and the horse brought into the ring four times before bull lashed his tail, roared, and began a sort of it was finally despatched, and the first bull preliminary canter round the arena. Then I saw killed five horses before it received its more banderillos, as the barbed sticks are own death blow. Naturally, I have the called, were stuck into him, and things began greatest objection to killing a Ay, unless it is to get lively for the “infantry," and the in the interests of justice, but when I had been “cavalry” had to be called into play. The at the bull fight for about half-an-hour, I was mounted “artists are called picadors, and longing to see the picadors, matadors, and consist of cavaliers in gay clothes, padded with all the other dors gored to death, such was sheets of lead, and riding on gaily caparisoned the cruelty and absence of sport in the whole chargers (mostly worn-out old cab horses). “entertainment.” They are armed with long lances, and they There are wooden shelters at intervals canter round the bull giving him playful prods round the arena, and when the bull becomes with their spears, and then gallop away out of too personal in his attentions the brave (!) danger, amidst the cheers and plaudits of the but discreet performers take shelter till the civilized and enlightened subjects of the "most tyranny is overpast. No shelter is provided Christian king.”

for the bull. Once, I was told, the authorities Sometimes the bull charges the picador and, tried a Scotch bull that was famed for its overtaking him, plunges his long horns again ferocity. I must tell you that a good deal of and again into the poor horse's side, until it is the (regrettable) immunity of the performers turned almost inside out, and in trying to is due to their skill in taking off the bull's escape it treads on its own entrails. The attention by red shawls when he presses the poor brute, if able to walk, is then led out, and matador too closely. This Scotch bull had a its inside is pushed back into place, and the stern Presbyterian disregard for such gewgaws wound roughly sewn up, and in canters the as draperies, and devoted his bovine attention gay knight again, full of beams and benevo.

entirely to the men themselves, so much so lence, to repeat his courageous prodding, and that at last the whole lot took shelter in the without a thought for the agonies of the poor wooden screens. The bull followed to where beast he is bestriding. This goes on until the he saw the largest collection of plump bull is supposed to be worked up to a sufficient toreadors and matadors, and getting into the degree of fury, and then the matador comes shelter reduced about five of the performers bowing in, to give the coup de grâce. Often to the consistency of raspberry jelly, and as many as eight poor horses are done to finally a gensdarme had to come in and death in this way before the bull is considered despatch him with a bullet from his carbine. “ripe.” The coup de grâce is the only phase in Since then the authorities have decided that the whole ghastly show that really requires a Spanish bull gives better sport. pluck, and has even a germ of "sport" in it. In the particular show that I went to see To my mind, true sport should entail danger five bulls were killed and about fourteen to the sportsman as well as the quarry. horses, and one man was carried out on a Well, as I said, the matador comes in, a stretcher, I fear only wounded. The barbarity princely gentleman in all the gorgeous finery of the whole thing exceeded anything that of an Old World Spaniard, with a crimson could possibly be believed by the gentlemen of Kamarband round his matadorian waist, and England who live at home at ease.

We were walks to the centre of the arena and takes all heartily glad to get on board our British off his hat and bows to the Governor's box, gunboat again, and steam away back to where and, with another sweeping bow round the the dear old Union Jack made such scenes tiers of seats, prepares for action. He has a impossible. Although the naval officers on

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