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terrible blow for the Ultras! The Marquis is attached to those glorious principles which guided him to America, and through the vicissitudes of the French Revolution; which animated him in the field, illustrated him in the senate, consoled him in the horrid dungeon of Olmutz, and now crown him with the suffrages of his countrymen, and with the respect and veneration of all that are not hostile to the cause of liberty, or friendly to that of kingly or ministerial despotism.
The state of most of the other European governments is very wretched when compared to that of France. When we look to Spain, we behold à people melting away beneath the tyranny of a wretched usurper, who, incapable of conducting the affairs of men, employs himself in the ideotic occupation of embroidering petticoats for the Virgin Mary! Now that the patriotic flame has burst forth in every part of South America, it is impossible that the utmost efforts of Old Spain should be able to retard the complete emancipation of the American continent. The spirit of independence is too widely spread, and has struck tоn firm a root in the minds, and is too much interwoven with the habits of the people, to be stifled by such a nauseous creature as Ferdinand. In this country, a great part of the budget is absorbed by the ministers of war and of the marine department; and England, which has possessions in every part of the world, is obliged to make Asia the bloody theatre of war and
desolation, now that Europe is pacified. This government cannot be satisfied without
perpetual warfare; the peace of mankind appears to throw England out of her natural element, and the hope of exciting misery and desolation in other countries, appears to rouse up all her wicked energies and destructive passions: not that the mass of the people receive any good from the mischief which they cause to their fellow-creatures! What an extension of agriculture even to the tops of their mountains, (says Dr. Franklin;) what rivers rendered navigable, or joined by canals; what bridges, aqueducts, new roads, and other public works, edifices and improvements, rendering England a complete Paradise, might not have been obtained by spending those millions in doing good, which in the last war have been spent in doing mischief! In bringing misery into thousands of families, and destroying the lives of so many thousands of working people, who might have performed the useful labour!
Scotland is considered as the brightest jewel on the crown of the British monarch, and its flourishing condition is contrasted with the unhappy state into which oppression has sunk a sister kingdom. Let any man draw a parallel between Scotland, as to loyalty, tranquillity and security, and the same country under Charles and James II.; and then let him ask himself in what condition it would have been at this moment, if the same odious means had been resorted to to establish episcopacy and to
uphold it in the Land o' Cakes," as have been made use of to force protestantism ou Ireland? Instead of a pattern of loyalty, it would have been a nest of sedition and discon. tent, and instead of being a nursery of soldiers and sailors, it would require more soldiers to dragoon it into duty, than it now supplies.
I very often employ a leisure evening in peu rusing the reviews, magazines and newspapers at Stewart's reading room. I receive most pleasure and instruction from that admirable work, the Edinburgh Review, and from a weekly journal called the Scotsman, which is one of the best conducted papers I ever met with. You know that the Edinburgh Reviewers are decided whigs of the Fox school; they are moderate reformers, but are hostile to the views of the radicals. They think that the scale preponderates too much on the side of government, and they want to throw a little on that of the people. They write very eloquently in favour of Borough Reform, &c. and as eloquently against Universal Suffrage, or a system of unmixed popular elections. Their avowed enmity to our glorious country, makes their pretensions to a love of freedom, look rather suspicious;* but I always attribute their
* Chatham, Fox and all the distinguished Whigs of the last fifty years, were avowed friends of the Americans; so much so, as to make it, for the present day, (says Mr. Walsh, in his Appeal,) " not only a perversion of natural feeling, but a political apostacy, to treat of their character and concerns, except upon a system of the utmost liberality and indulgence.”-Again, “ the Reviewers have canted about the tender forbearance due on both
sarcasms on our government and manners, to that profound ignorance which prevails here on the subject. Peter, in his “ Letters to his Kinsfolk,” says that the Edinburgh Reviewers are little better than deists. “ It is a very easy thing to deny, (says he,) that the doctrines of religious scepticism have been ever openly and broadly promulgated in the pages of the Review; but I think no candid person can entertain the slightest doubt, that the tendency of the whole work has been uniformly and essentially infidel."
The perusal of what are called the “ Waverly Novels," always affords me a rich mental treat.* I prefer Waverly, Rob Roy and sides of the Atlantic-and they have harped upon these topics, in the sequel of a tissue of the bitterest contumelies and sarcasms.” I refer the reader to this learved and amusing work, for a complete exposition of the conduct of the British Reviewers towards us; Mr. Walsh appears to have completely silenced the biss of these serpents of literature, on the subject of our country-for, siuce the publication of his Appeal, they bave been wonderfully coudescending and gracious-vide the reviews of the Sketch Buok.
* Mrs. Barbauld, (in her edition of the “ Correspondence of Richardson,”) divides novels into threo several classes. The first is the narrative or epic form, in which the wbole story is put into the mouth of the author, who is supposed, like the Muse, to know every thing; the second is that in which the hero relates his owo adventures; and the third is that of epistolary correspondence. In the opinion of a learned critic, there is only one species of novel, to which the epistolary style is peculiarly adapted; that is, where the interest depends, not upon the adventures, but on the characters of the persons represented, and in which the story is of very subordinate importance. Rousseau's Héloise may be considered as the model of this species of writing: in this immortal work, there is scarcely any narration at all; and the
Old Mortality to the others;* but all of them are so excellent, that their numerous beauties strike me blind to their trifling errors. inclined to think, however, that the author of these far famed productions, (whoever he may be,) is no very ardent friend to liberty, but an admirer of the new-fangled doctrines of legitimacy. I doubt not that he belongs to a sin. gular political sect sprung up lately, whose mouth, as the Spectator would say, is. Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd. In the writings of these modern Jacobites, the devotion of the Stuart partisans is lavishly chaunted, their heroism is consecrated as super-human, the Cavaliers are lauded to the skies; but for the Whigs, they
interest may be said to consist altogether in the eloquent expression of fine sentiments and exalted passion. The author of the Scotch novels appears to prefer the first of the three modes, wbich is undoubtedly the best, for it lays the writer under no restraint; he can introduce the two other methods when he thinks proper, and can make use of the dramatic or conversation style as often as the subject requires it.
* I bave just been reading the Pirate, which is stamped with all the marks of the author's great genius. The description of the wild scenery of the Northern isles, and the striking delineations of character, are the principal beauties of the work. There is a dreadful tone of energy in the misanthropy of the elder Mertoun, and an expression of wretchedness and alienation from mankind, which recals to mind the gloomy beroes of Lord Byron. What could be more beautiful than the description of the two lovely sisters in bed; from wbich Minna wishes to rise, in order to bid adieu to her lover, but finds it impossible to extricate herself from her sister's grasp without awakening her! “ Brenda had sobbed herself to sleep on her bosom, and lay with her face on her neck, with one arm stretched around her, in the attitude of a child which has been lulled to repose in the arms of its nurse."