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the professors, as Lockart observes, are schoolmasters in the strictest sense of the word, since they lay the lowest part of the foundation on which a superstructure of erudition is to be raised. The expenses of education here are not very great; the students are generally very poor: any young man, (says the author just quoted,) who can afford to wear a decent coat, and live in a garret upon porridge and herrings, may, if he pleases, come to Edinburgh, and pass through his academical career! Many poor fellows who might have lived comfortably by agricultural pursuits or mechanical trades, prefer to starve with a little learning in their heads. An indigent father will submit to any privations to afford his son an University education, which seldom procures the means of fortune or subsistence in this country. Many a young man of talents and education,
« Checked by the scoff of Pride, by Envy's frown,
And Poverty's unconquerable bar,
In life's low vale remote has pined alone,
A great number of the poor alumni of the Scotch colleges embrace the clerical profession, which affords but a scanty subsistence, widely different from the otium cum dignitate of the English and Irish clergy. Others live as tutors in the houses of the rich, where they “ keep the noiseless tenor of their way” along the sequestered vale of life.
In“Guy Mannering” we are presented with
remarkable example of this, in the person of Jominie Sampson. The University of Edinurgh has all the disadvantages of a recent intitution: it has not the venerable appearance vhich antiquity gives, and is not possessel of hose lucrative rights of patronage, and of the xtensive landed and other property, which five such splendour and importance to Oxford ind Cambridge.
Before the commencement of the 18th cenury, the healing art was in a perfect state of legradation in this country. Like the surgeons of St. Côme at Paris, those of Edinburgh did :he business of barbers: by the laws of the incorporation, the same men who performed the operations of surgery,“ had the sole right to shave beards and sell whiskey in the gude toun!” This noble trade continued till a much later period, since we find Mercier exposing it to ridicule in his Tableau de Paris. The picture which he presents of a surgeon-barber's shop is so ludicrous, that I cannot resist the temptation of giving it to you in an English garb. “The panes of glass, covered with pomatum and powder, prevent the light from coming in at the window; dirty soap-suds have
discoloured and undermined the brick floor; spiders hang dead from their whitened webs, having been smothered by the eternal volcano of hair-powder! Among the men at work, a surgeon's mate is distinguished; he has just left the dissecting room, where he was up to the elbows in human intestines, his hands still
exhale the cadaverous smell of rotten carcasses -in spite of which, he handles all the noses and chins in the room, and afterwards washes and dresses himself for dinner and the amuse. ments of the evening!!"
At the same time, there were no laws against quacks, who gave physic and advice with about as much success as certain dealers in Indian specifics and panaceas do among us, The regular practitioners distinguished themselves by their Hippocratic gravity and pecu. liarity of dress in Scotland, as well as in France, where they were exposed to the sarcasms of the wits. Moliere draws a lively picture of the doctors of his time, in the personages Diafoirus and Purgon; Le Sage exposed them to ridicule in his immortal novels, and Montesquieu and J. J. Rousseau are very witty at the expense of physicians of a still later period.* l'he writers of the age were not permitted to attack the absurdities in government and religion, and were very glad to have such copious food for their ridicule, as the members of a learned profession.
The rapid progress of the Medical School of Edinburgh, is perhaps without a parallel in the history of any other institution. All the chairs were filled by professors of eminent abilities: Monro, Gregory, Cullen and Black were equally distinguished by their profession
*“ Un médecin ne serait plus ridicule si ses habits étaient moins lugubres, et s'il tuait ses malades en badinant."
| talents and their classical learning; and of nost of the present lecturers, it may be said, observes Stark,) that the laurels of fame vhich have been gained by the sires, still bloom vith unfading lustre on the brows of their
It would appear that the professorships were hereuitary in this University, for most of he chairs have been filled by the ancestors of he present lecturers. Drs. Gregory, Hope, Home, Hamilton and Monro have succeeded to chairs in which their fathers flourished for many years, and all of them, except Dr. Mon. ro, deserve the flattering compliment paid by Mr. Stark. The late Dr. Alexander Monro, who succeeded his illustrious father in 1760, was heir to his brilliant talents, with which he adorned the University for more than 40 years. The present professor of that name will probably be the last of the Monroian dynasty: he has succeeded neither to the talents nor the virtues of his predecessors. With the students he is extremely unpopular, and he does not varnish over his vices by those splendid qualities which serve to render vice less repulsive, and even virtue more endearing. On no medical brow are gray
hairs more finely contrasted with the evergreen of a laurel chaplet, and on none are the wrinkles so completely hidden by its leaves, as that of Dr. Gregory. This gentleman unites profound learning with the most engaging manners; he thus not only honours his profession, by the splendour of his talents, but gives it a degree
of popularity which it seldom possessed be. fore. To him might be applied the beautiful line of Voltaire,
“ Il sait l'art de guérir autant que l'art de plaire." Dr. G. employed the early part of his life in visiting the most celebrated Universities of Europe. He spent a long time in Paris, just before the revolution, and in Holland, where he attended the lectures of the famous Albi. nus: so that, when he returned from his travels, he was capable, though at an early age, to fill the chair left vacant by his illustrious parent. Henry Kirke White says, in one of his letters, that "medical Greek and Latin would act as a soporific upon any man who should hear their tremendous technicals pronounced with the true ore rotundo of a Scotch physician!" If he had enjoyed the advantage of hearing Dr. Gregory read Latin, he would have lost sight of the tremendous technicals," in the pleasure he would have derived in hearing the Dr.'s truly classical pronunciation.
Dr. Thompson styles himself, (for what reason God only knows!) professor of Military surgery. He has a great difficulty in expressing his ideas, much confusion and want of arrangement in his plan, and awkwardness in the use of the knife. The students tell a curious anecdote of him, which reflects no credit on his surgical skill. After cutting into the bladder in the operation of Lithotomy, he found that the calculus was too large to come out by