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with his usual violence and absurdity. After his signal defeat at the Boyne, he fled to this capital, which was menaced with all the horrors of anarchy. James remained only one night at the castle, where he assembled his officers, told them his misfortune, and on the following day fled to Waterford, where he embarked for France.
King William was not much disposed to govern Ireland with lenity and prudence, although his disposition was decidedly tolerant Victory on the banks of the Boyne, seemed to impose a necessity upon the conquerors, of preserving what their swords had won, by a harsh coercion of the vanquished. The severe laws against popery, date from William's time; that, in particular, which shuts the doors of Parliament against Catholics, was passed in the 3d year of his reign. His stupid successors have done every thing in their power to irritate the people against their rulers. The execrable popery laws divided the nation into two distinct bodies, without common interest or sympathy, or connexion. “ One of those bodies, (says Burke,) was to possess all the franchises, all the property, all the education; the other was to be composed of drawers of water, and cutters of turf for them!” In 1798 and 1803, the flame broke out and raged over the country with the most horrible violence; and the fire which has been smouldering since the Union, seems ready to burst forth again: indeed matters have been pushed to too great
lengths between the two countries, ever to admit of a sincere or lasting reconciliation, *
To have a general idea of the appearance of the capital of the Land of Erin, I ascended to the terrace on top of Nelson's monument. I saw the bay to the east gradually disappearing in the azure of the horizon; the mountainous scenery appeared to me less romantic, but more meekly beautifulthan the Highlands; the variegated appearance of the adjacent country, the neatness of the blue slating, with which the houses are covered, and the noble architecture of the public buildings, contribute to the grandeur of the prospect. --Dublin is seated near a large and spacious bay, into which the river Anna Liffey discharges itself. The city extends from east to west along the river, nearly three miles, and is about the same breadth The streets are said to resemble those of London, and they have the same names; but Dublin jis much superior to the Devil's drawing room, in the magnificence of the public buildings,
*"So great and so long has been the mis-government of Ireland, that we verily believe the empire would be much stronger, if every thing was open sea between England and the Atlantic, and if skates and codfish swam over the lair land of Ulster. Such jobbing, such profligacy—so much direct tyranny and oppression -such an abuse of God's gifts such a profanation of God's name for the purposes of bigotry and party spirit, cannot be exceeded in the history of civilized Europe, and will long remain a monument of infamy and shame to England.”—Again: “ At this moment, in a period of the most profound peace, there are 25,000 of the best disciplined and best appointed troops in the world in Ireland, with bayonets fixed, presented arms, and in the attitude of present war: nor is there a man too much---nor, would Ireland be tenable without them.” EDINBURGR Review, 1820.
and the beauty and extent of the quays on both sides of the Liffey. That beautiful river is imbedded between two walls, from which the streets extend to the houses, in a gentle slope. Seven bridges stretch over it; of these the New Iron Bridge is the most elegant; it spans the stream in one immense arch, of amazing narrowness and lightsomeness of workmanship. The Richmond Bridge extends from the Four Courts, which form one grand pile of superb architecture. In the middle of this edifice is a large circular hall, which, in Term times, (i. e. 4 times a year,) is crowded with lawyers and loungers. The lawyers appear to think that an enormous wig with 3 or 4 queues adds a great deal to their oratorical powers!
The city of Dublin is now an archi-episcopal see. Its ecclesiastical government is vested in its archbishop, archdeacon and other clergy. The archbishop, (Dr. Cleaver,) is primate of Ireland, and bishop of Glendalogh. You know my sentiments about the different forms of Christianity: I do not know that there is any human judge who can decide which is exclusively the best, and therefore I say, with bishop Watson, that they are all good, and that I do not belong to the church of England, or the church of Rome, but to the church of Christ. The Catholic religion was professed for many ages by our ancestors, and by all Christendom -it is still professed by the majority of the civilized world-it was the religion of Sir Thomas More, of Fenelon, of Massillon:
can such a religion disqualify a whole nation from being members of civilized society, ought it to exclude them from a participation in those advantages which bind men together, and give security to their property?
The lord lieutenant is not appointed for any limited period, but according to his Majesty's pleasure. The present lord lieutenant, (Charles Chetwynd Earl Talbot,) succeeded Lord Whitworth in 1817. Lord Chesterfield tells his son that the confusion in Ireland during Dorset's viceroyalty, was occasioned by the Duke's giving his business up to favourites: “ and it was my doing the whole myself, (sayš he,) without either favourite, minister or mistress, that made my administration so smooth and quiet”-Phillips gives some amusing anecdotes of the Duke of Rutland's viceroyalty, in his Recollections of Curran. It seems his grace was sent to drink the Irish into good humour, and his court was the residence of riot and dissipation. He publicly kept a who occupied his attention more than the Privy Council! The Duke one evening went in state to the theatre, with his chamberlain, pages, aids-de-camp, ex id genus omne. Peg Plunket, his grace's mistress, was discovered in his box-a fellow in the gallery recognized her, and wishing to mortify the Duke, who was extremely unpopular, bellowed out most unceremoneously"Peg! Peg! who was your companion last evening? Manners, fellow, mannets!" retorted them. It is unnecessary
to add that MANNERS is the name of the Rutland family.
The salary is 30,0001., which is enough, God knows! Government generally sends over some insignificant, stupid nobleman, who will humbly consent to be their tool. If they had always been so happy in their choice, as in that of Marquis Cornwallis, the lieutenants would have been the saviours of this country? Cornwallis entered Dublin, (says Mr. Wakefield, with the modesty of a merciful mediator; his memory therefore will live in the faithful
pages of history;--while the names of many who have filled the same situation, will be execrated as often as they are mentioned."
Last Monday I paid a visit to Newgate, having furnished myself with a letter to the keeper, who first conducted me to the chapel. Near this humble place of devotion is the Press-Room, in which the apparatus is disposed for executions. The culprit walks to the
fatal drop, through an iron window, surround+ ed by pallisades; the drop consists of two iron
traps which meet at the middle of the platform, and which are made to fly asunder by a spring. The rope is fixed round the criminal's neck in the Press-Room; it passes over pulleys through the wall and over the drop. As soon as the culprit stands on the platform, the rope is shortened by turning round the interior pulley; then the drop is suddenly made to give way, when the unhappy being is precipitated with a