Theories on Drug Abuse: Selected Contemporary Perspectives
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1980 - Drug abuse - 488 pages
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abstinence achievement activity addiction adolescent adult alcohol anxiety appears associated become behavior cause changes characteristics considered continue culture death dependence doses drinking drug abuse drug dependence early effects environment et al evidence example expected experience explain factors feelings findings function genetic heroin human illicit drugs important increased individual influence initiation involved lead learning less major marijuana means mechanisms narcotic nature norms observed occur opiates parents particular patients patterns peer perceived period personality Ph.D physical pleasure population positive possible present probably problems produce psychological reinforcement relapse relationship relatively reported response result role self-esteem sense situation social society specific stage stimulation structure studies subculture substance suggests tend theory tion treatment users usually values variables withdrawal young youths